Journal of Youth and Adolescence

, Volume 23, Issue 3, pp 315–330

Depressive styles in adolescence: Assessment, relation to social functioning, and developmental trends

  • Laura Fichman
  • Richard Koestner
  • David C. Zuroff


Examined the relation of dependency and self-criticism to social functioning among adolescents. Subjects were 7th–11th graders from a suburban high school who completed the Depressive Experiences Questionnaire for Adolescents (DEQ-A) and the Inventory of Interpersonal Problems (IIP). The results showed that self-criticism was strongly associated with reporting a greater number of interpersonal problems, particularly in the areas of sociability and control. Dependency was only marginally related to interpersonal difficulties. The results also showed that levels of self-criticism tended to decline steadily across the high-school years, whereas levels of dependency followed a U-shaped curvilinear pattern in which it was higher in the early and late high school years relative to the middle years. Finally, the present study provides initial evidence of a reliable, shortened 20-item version of the DEQ-A.


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Copyright information

© Plenum Publishing Corporation 1994

Authors and Affiliations

  • Laura Fichman
    • 1
  • Richard Koestner
    • 1
  • David C. Zuroff
    • 1
  1. 1.Psychology DepartmentMcGill UniversityMontrealCanada

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