Advertisement

Digestive Diseases and Sciences

, Volume 33, Issue 10, pp 1250–1259 | Cite as

Combined effects of protein deficiency and chronic ethanol consumption on rat pancreas

  • Jeremy S. Wilson
  • Mark A. Korsten
  • Maria A. Leo
  • Charles S. Lieber
Original Articles

Abstract

This study was performed in order to delineate the combined effects of protein deficiency and chronic ethanol ingestion on the rat pancreas. Rats fed ethanol in combination with protein-deficient diets developed marked steatosis, whereas alcohol ingestion with nutritionally adequate diets and protein deficiency alone each were associated with a more moderate degree of pancreatic lipid accumulation. On biochemical analysis, it was found that protein deficiency decreased pancreatic phospholipid content. Furthermore, both protein deficiency and chronic ethanol consumption increased pancreatic cholesteryl ester content, and their effects were additive. Functional changes were studied using isolated pancreative acini. Protein deficiency depressed the tissue content of lipase and the ability of pancreatic acini to secrete lipase. Chronic ethanol feeding increased lipase levels in the acini and also their secretory capacity. Thus, to the extent that enzyme accumulation in the pancreas plays a role in the pathogenesis of alcoholic pancreatitis, these results may explain the higher incidence of pancreatitis in well-nourished alcoholics that has been documented in dietary surveys.

Key Words

protein deficiency ethanol cholesterol ester pancreas lipase 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 1.
    Sarles H, Sarles J-C, Camatte R, Muratore R, Gaini M, Guien C, Pastor J, LeRoy F: Observations on 205 confirmed cases of acute pancreatitis, recurring pancreatitis and chronic pancreatitis. Gut 6:545–559, 1965PubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Durbec JP, Sarles H: Multicenter survey of the etiology of pancreatic diseases. Relationship between the relative risk of developing chronic pancreatitis and alcohol, protein and lipid composition. Digestion 18:337–350, 1978PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Haig THB: Experimental pancreatitis intensified by a high fat diet. Surg Gynecol Obstet 131:914–918, 1970PubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Maki T, Kakisaki G, Sato T, Saito Y, Suda Y, Onuma T, Hayasaka N: Effect of diet on experimental pancreatitis in rat. Tohoku J Exp Med 92:301–309, 1967PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Pitchumoni CS, Sonnenshein M, Candido FM, Panchacharam P, Cooperman JM: Nutrition in the pathogenesis of alcoholic pancreatitis. Am J Clin Nutr 33:631–636, 1980PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Pitchumoni CS: Pancrease in primary malnutrition disorders. Am J Clin Nutr 26:374–379, 1973PubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Mezey E, Jow E, Slavin RE, Tobon F: Pancreatic function and intestinal absorption in chronic alcoholism. Gastroenterology 59:657–664, 1970PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Korsten MA, Lieber CS: Nutrition in the alcoholic. Med Clin North Am 63:963–972, 1979PubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Dreiling DA, Bordalo O: A toxic-metabolic hypothesis of pathogenesis of alcoholic pancreatitis. Alcoholism: Clin Exp Res 1:293–299, 1977Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Lieber CS, DeCarli LM: The feeding of alcohol in liquid diets: Two decades of applications and 1982 update. Alcoholism: Clin Exp Res 6:523–531, 1982Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Womack M, Rose WC: The partial replacement of dietary methionine by cystine for purposes of growth. J Biol Chem 141:375–379, 1941Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Rama Rao PB, Norton HW, Johnson BC: The amino acid composition and nutritive value of proteins. IV. Phenylalanine, tyrosine, methionine and cystine requirements of the growing rat. J Nutr 73:38–42, 1961Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Korsten MA, Matsuzaki S, Feinman L, Lieber CS: High blood acetaldehyde levels after ethanol administration: Difference between alcoholic and nonalcoholic subjects. N Engl J Med 292:386–389, 1975PubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Sabatini DD, Bensch K, Barnett RJ: Cytochemistry and electron microscopy. The preservation of cellular ultrastructure and enzymatic activity by aldehyde fixation. J Cell Biol 17:19–58, 1963PubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Luft JH: Improvement in epoxy resins embedding method. J Biophys Biochem Cytol 9:409–414, 1961PubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Reynold ES: The use of lead citrate at high pH as an electron opaque stain in electron microscopy. J Cell Biol 17:208–212, 1963PubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Stempak JG, Ward RT: An improved staining method for electron microscopy. J Cell Biol 22:697–701, 1964PubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Folch J, Lees M, Sloane-Stanley GH: A simple method for isolation and purification of total lipids from animal tissue. J Biol Chem 226:497–504, 1957PubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    DeCarli LM, Lieber CS: Fatty liver in the rat after prolonged intake of ethanol with a nutritionally adequate new liquid diet. J Nutr 91:331–336, 1967PubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Snyder F, Stephens N: A simplified spectrophotometric determination of ester groups in lipids. Biochim Biophys Acta 34:244–245, 1959PubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Searcy RL, Berquist LM: A new color reaction for the quantitation of serum cholesterol. Clin Chim Acta 5:192–199, 1960PubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Bartlett GR: Phosphorus assay in column chromatography. J Biol Chem 234:466–468, 1959PubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Williams JA, Korc M, Dormer RL: Action of secretagogues on a preparation of functionally intact, isolated pancreatic acini. Am J Physiol 235:E517-E524, 1978Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Doumas BT, Watson W, Biggs HG: Albumin standards and the measurement of serum albumin with bromocresol green. Clin Chim Acta 31:87–96, 1971PubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Lowry OH, Rosebrough NJ, Farr L, Randall RJ: Protein measurement with the Folin phenol reagent. J Biol Chem 193:265–275, 1951PubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Borgstrom B, Hildebrand H: Lipase and co-lipase activities of human small intestinal contents after a liquid test meal. Scand J Gastroenterol 10:585–591, 1975PubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Gidez I: Effect of dietary fat on pancreatic lipase levels in the rat. J Lipid Res 14:169–177, 1973PubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Snedecor GW, Cochran WG: Statistical Methods, 7th ed. Ames, Iowa, Iowa State University Press, 1980, pp 255–273Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    Adams CW, Fernand VS, Schneiden H: Histochemistry of a condition resembling kwashiorkor produced in rodents by a low protein-high carbohydrate diet (cassava). Br J Exp Pathol 39:393–404, 1958PubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Weisblum B, Herman L, Fitzgerald PJ: Changes in pancreatic acinar cells during protein deprivation. J Cell Biol 12:313–328, 1962PubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Sabesin SM, Hawkins HL, Kuiken L, Ragland JB: Abnormal plasma lipoproteins and lecithin-cholesterol acyltransferase deficiency in alcoholic liver disease. Gastroenterology 72:510–518, 1977PubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Forrest BJ, Cushley RJ: Cholesterol esters and membrane permeability. A nuclear magnetic resonance study. Atherosclerosis 28:309–318, 1977PubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Zysset T, Polokoff MA, Simon FR: Effect of chronic ethanol administration on enzyme and lipid properties of liver plasma membranes in long and short sleep mice. Hepatology 5:531–537, 1985PubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Dawidowicz EA: The effect of ethanol on membranes. Hepatology 5:697–699, 1985PubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Yamada S, Lieber CS: Decrease in microviscosity and cholesterol content of rat liver plasma membranes after chronic ethanol feeding. J Clin Invest 74:2278–2282, 1984Google Scholar
  36. 36.
    Yamada S, Mak KM, Lieber CS: Chronic ethanol consumption alters rat liver plasma membranes and potentiates release of alkaline phosphatase. Gastroenterology 88:1799–1806, 1985PubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Singh M: Effect of chronic ethanol feeding on pancreatic enzyme secretion in ratsin vitro. Dig Dis Sci 78:117–123, 1983Google Scholar
  38. 38.
    Sarles H: Chronic calcifying pancreatitis-chronic alcoholic pancreatitis. Gastroenterology 66:604–616, 1974PubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Plenum Publishing Corporation 1988

Authors and Affiliations

  • Jeremy S. Wilson
    • 1
    • 2
  • Mark A. Korsten
    • 1
    • 2
  • Maria A. Leo
    • 1
    • 2
  • Charles S. Lieber
    • 1
    • 2
  1. 1.Alcohol Research Center, V.A. Medical CenterBronx
  2. 2.Mount Sinai School of Medicine (CUNY)New York

Personalised recommendations