Advertisement

Journal of Religion and Health

, Volume 25, Issue 4, pp 291–302 | Cite as

Twentieth-century attitudes toward masturbation

  • Michael S. Patton
Article

Abstract

This article demonstrates the progress that medicine, psychiatry, religion, and anthropology have made toward a variant perspective, of masturbation. Researchers documented the suffering and damage caused by classically ingrained religious and medical distortions.

The “secret sin” of Judeo-Christianity and the “social disease” of nineteenth-century medicine has paradoxially become the therapy for various forms of psychosexual dysfunction. Catholic, Protestant, and Jewish denominations polarize opinions from rigorous orthodoxy to unconditional acceptance of this psychosexual behavior as a source of emotional homeostasis.

Keywords

Variant Perspective Unconditional Acceptance Social Disease Jewish Denomination Psychosexual Dysfunction 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 1.
    Bullough, V.,Sexual Variance in Society and History. Chicago, University of Chicago Press, 1976.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Bullough, V. and Bullough, B., “Why the Hostility to Sex?” InSin, Sickness and Sanity: A History of Sexual Attitudes. New York, New American Library, 1977.Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Wilson, R., “Attitudes toward Modern Sex.” In Ellis, A. and Abarbanel, A. eds.,Encyclopedia of Sexual Behavior. New York, Hawthorne, 1961.Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Patton, M., “Masturbation from Judaism to Victorianism,”J. Religion and Health, 1985,24, 2, 26–34.Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Haeberle, E., “Masturbation.” InThe Sex Atlas. New York, Continuum, 1982.Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Francoeur, R.,Becoming a Sexual Person. New York, John Wiley & Sons, 1982.Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Krafft-Ebing, R. von,Psychopathia Sexualis. New York, Bell Publishing Co., 1886, 1965.Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Zucker, K., “Freud's Early Views on Masturbation and the Actual Neuroses,”J. Amer. Academy of Psychoanalysis, 19797, 1, 15–32.Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Freud, S., “Three Essays on the Theory of Sexuality.” InStandard Edition, Vol. VII. London, Hogarth Press, 1905, pp. 125–145.Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    —, “Contributions to a Discussion on Masturbation.” InStandard Edition, Vol. XII. London, Hogarth Press, 1912, pp. 239–254.Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Zucker, K., “Freud's Early Views on Masturbation and the Actual Neuroses,”J. Amer. Academy of Psychoanalysis, 19797, 1, 15–32.Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Freud, S., “Contributions to a Discussion on Masturbation,”op. cit..Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    —, “Sexuality in the Aetiology of the Neurosis.” InStandard Edition, Vol. III. London, Hogarth Press, 1898, pp. 261–285.Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Levin, S., “The Relation of Various Affects to Masturbation Conflicts.” In Marcus, I., and Francis, J., eds.,Masturbation: From Infancy to Senescence. New York, International Press, Inc., 1975.Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Halberstadt, H., “Freud's Libido Theory.” In Money, J., and Musaph, H., eds.,Handbook of Sexology. North-Holland, Biomedical Press, 1977.Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Stanley, F.,The Sexually Active Man Past Forty. New York, MacMillan Co., 1968.Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Nunberg, H., and Federn, E., eds., “Discussions on Masturbation,”, Minutes of the Vienna Psychoanalytic Society New York, International Universities Press, 1974.Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Spitz. R., “Authority and Masturbation: Some Remarks on a Bibliographical Investigation.” InMasturbation from Infancy to Senescence, op. cit. Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Greydanus, D., and Geller, B., “Masturbation Historic Perspective,”New York J. Medicine, November 1980, 1892–1896.Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Holt, E., and McIntosh, R.,Holt's Diseases of Infancy and Childhood. New York, D. Appleton-Century Company, 1940.Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Wilson, R.,op. cit.“.Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Stokes, W., “Guilt and Conflict in Relation to Sex.” In Ellis, A., and Abarbanel, A., eds.,Encyclopedia of Sex Behavior, Vol. I. New York, Hawthorne, 1961.Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Levin, S.,op. cit.“.Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Stokes, W.,op. cit.“.Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Gagnon, J., and Simon, W., “Childhood and Adolescence.” InSexual Conduct: Social Sources of Human Sexuality. Chicago, Aldine Co., 1973.Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    Kinsey, A.; Pomeroy, W.; and Martin, C.,Sexual Behavior in the Human Male. Philadelphia, W. B. Saunders, 1948.Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    Kinsey, A.; Pomeroy, W.; Martin, C.; and Gebhard, P.,Sexual Behavior in the Human Female. Philadelphia, W. B. Saunders, 1953.Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    Stekel, W.,Auto-Eroticism: A Psychiatric Study of Masturbation and Neurosis. London, Liverlight, 1951.Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    Maurer, D., “Language and the Sex Revolution: World War I through World War II,”American Speech. Spring 1976, 51, 5–24.Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    Francoeur, R.,op. cit..Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    Kinsey, A.,Sexual Behavior in the Human Male,op. cit..Google Scholar
  32. 32.
    —,Sexual Behavior in the Human Female,op. cit..Google Scholar
  33. 33.
    Francoeur, R.,op. cit..Google Scholar
  34. 34.
    Stekel, W.,Auto-Eroticism. New York, Liverlight, 1950.Google Scholar
  35. 35.
    —,Auto-Eroticism: A Psychiatric Study of Masturbation and Neurosis,op. cit..Google Scholar
  36. 36.
    Bullough, V.,op. cit..Google Scholar
  37. 37.
    Montagu, A.,Sex, Man and Society. New York. Putnam, 1969.Google Scholar
  38. 38.
    Hunt, M., “Masturbation.” InSexual Behavior in the 1970's. Chicago, Playboy Press, 1974.Google Scholar
  39. 39.
    Marcus, I., and Francis, J., “Masturbation: A Developmental View.” InMasturbation: From Infancy to Senescence., op. cit. New York, International Press, Inc., 1975.Google Scholar
  40. 40.
    Dearborn, L., “Autoeroticism.” In Ellis, A., and Abarbanel, A., eds.,The Encyclopedia of Sexual Behavior, two volumes. New York, Hawthorne Books, 1961.Google Scholar
  41. 41.
    Abramson, P., and Mosher, D., “Development of a Measure of Negative Attitudes toward Masturbation,”J. Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 1975,43, 4, 485–490.Google Scholar
  42. 42.
    Colton, H., “A Personal View of the Sex Revolution.” In Bullough, V., ed.,Frontiers of Sex Research. Buffalo, Prometheus, 1979.Google Scholar
  43. 43.
    Greydanus and Geller,op. cit. “Masturbation-Historic Perspective,”New York J. Medicine, November 1980, 1892–1896.Google Scholar
  44. 44.
    Hunt, M.,op. cit.“.Google Scholar
  45. 45.
    Reiss, I., “Changing Sociosexual Mores.” In Money, J., and Musaph, H., eds.,Handbook of Sexology. New York, Excerpta Medica, 1977, pp. 311–325.Google Scholar
  46. 46.
    Nass, G.; Libby, R.; and Fisher, M., “Sex with Ourselves.” InSexual Choices: An Introduction to Human Sexuality. Monterey, California, Wadsworth Health Sciences Division, 1984.Google Scholar
  47. 47.
    Levin, S.,op. cit.“.Google Scholar
  48. 48.
    Ellis, A., “Masturbation.” InSex without Guilt. North Hollywood, California, Wilshire Book Co., 1958.Google Scholar
  49. 49.
    Patton, M.,A Case Study Showing the Correlation Between Teen Pregnancy and Sex Education: With a Focus on Changing Attitudes from 1972–1982 at Ogdensburg Free Academy Junior-Senior High School. Ogdensburg, New York, 1983.Google Scholar
  50. 50.
    Kelley, G.,Sexuality: The Human Perspective. New York, Barron's Educational Series, 1980.Google Scholar
  51. 51.
    Lutz, D., “Psychologist Favors Healthy Attitude Toward Masturbation,”Minnesota Daily, Feb. 26, 1985,120, 86, 1.Google Scholar
  52. 52.
    DeMartino, M., ed.,Human Autoerotic Practices. New York, Human Sciences Press, 1979.Google Scholar
  53. 53.
    Kaplan, H.,The New Sex Therapy. New York, Bruner and Mazel, 1974.Google Scholar
  54. 54.
    Lo Piccolo, J., and Lobitz, W., “The Role of Masturbation in the Treatment of Orgasmic Dysfunction,”Archives of Sexual Behavior, December 1972,2, 2, 163–171.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    Kinsey, A.,Sexual Behavior in the Human Female,op. cit..Google Scholar
  56. 56.
    Masters, W., and Johnson, V.,Human Sexual Response. Boston, Little, Brown and Co., 1966.Google Scholar
  57. 57.
    Gagnon, J., “Masturbation.” InHuman Sexualities. Glenview, Illinois, Scott, Foresman and Co., 1977.Google Scholar
  58. 58.
    Francoeur, R.,op. cit..Google Scholar
  59. 59.
    Sorenson, R., “Masturbation.” InAdolescent Sexuality in Contemporary, America. New York, World Publishing Times Mirror, 1973.Google Scholar
  60. 60.
    Haas, A., “Masturbation.” InTeenage Sexuality: A Survey of Teenage Sexual BehaviourNew York, MacMillan, 1979.Google Scholar
  61. 61.
    Hite, S.,The Hite Report: A Nationwide Study of Female Sexuality. New York, Dell, Inc., 1976.Google Scholar
  62. 62.
    Gagnon, J.,op. cit.“.Google Scholar
  63. 63.
    Durham, T., and Grossnickle, W., “Attitudes toward Masturbation,”Psychological Reports, 1982,51, 932–934.Google Scholar
  64. 64.
    Larue, G., “Masturbation.” InSex and the Bible. Buffalo, Prometheus Books, 1983.Google Scholar
  65. 65.
    Kraft, W., “A Psychospiritual View of Masturbation,”Human Development, 1982,3, 2, 39–45.Google Scholar
  66. 66.
    Greeley, A.,The Catholic Priest in the United States: Sociological Investigations. Washington, D. C., United States Catholic Conference, 1972.Google Scholar
  67. 67.
    Kosnik, A.; Carroll, W.; Cunningham, A.; Modras, R.; and Schulte, J.,Human Sexuality: New Directions in American Catholic Though. A Study Commissioned by the Catholic Theological Society of America. New York, Paulist Press, 1977.Google Scholar
  68. 68.
    Patton, M., “A Historical Survey of Attitudes toward Masturbation in Western Civilization.” InMasturbation in the American Catholic Church With a Focus on Social and Educational Change. Ann Arbor. Research Abstracts, Microfilm International Inc., 1984.Google Scholar
  69. 69.
    Scanzoni, L., “Protestatnt Views of Sexuality.” In Holland, J., ed.,Religion and Sexuality: Judaic-Christian Viewpoints in the USA. San Francisco, The Association of Sexologists., 1981.Google Scholar
  70. 70.
    Bennett, A., “Jewish Views of Sexuality.” InReligion and Sexuality: Judaic-Christian, Viewpoints in the USA, op. cit. Google Scholar
  71. 71.
    Katchadourian, H., and Lunde, D., “Autoeroticism.” InFundamentals of Human Sexuality. New York, Holt, Rinehart and Winston, Inc., 1972.Google Scholar
  72. 72.
    Colton, H.,op. cit.“.Google Scholar
  73. 73.
    Harris, M.,Cultural Anthropology, New York, Harper and Row, 1983.Google Scholar
  74. 74.
    Roheim, G.,Psychoanalysis and Anthropology: Culture, Personality and the Unconscious. New York, International Universities Press, 1973.Google Scholar
  75. 75.
    Mead, M.,Growing Up in New Guinea. New York, William Morrow and Co. Inc., 1975.Google Scholar
  76. 76.
    —,Male and Female: A Study of the Sexes in a Changing World. New York, Dell, 1949.Google Scholar
  77. 77.
    Prescott, J., “Body Pleasure and the Origins of Violence,”The Futurist, 1975,9, 2, 64–74.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Institutes of Religion and Health 1986

Authors and Affiliations

  • Michael S. Patton

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations