Geophysical surveys

, Volume 5, Issue 1, pp 37–82 | Cite as

Magnetic anisotropy of rocks and its application in geology and geophysics

  • František Hrouda


Magnetic anisotropy in sedimentary rocks is controlled by the processes of deposition and compaction, in volcanic rocks by the lava flow and in metamorphic and plutonic rocks by ductile deformation and mimetic crystallization. In massive ore it is due to processes associated with emplacement and consolidation of an ore body as well as to ductile deformation. Hence, it can be used as a tool of structural analysis for almost all rock types. Morcover, it can influence considerably the orientation of the remanent magnetization vector as well as the configuration of a magnetic anomaly over a magnetized body. For these reasons it should be investigated in palaeomagnetism and applied geophysics as well.


Crystallization Anisotropy Compaction Structural Analysis Volcanic Rock 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Aparin, V. P., Rodionov, V. P., and Fedoseeva, N. V.: 1972, ‘Magnetic Anisotropy of Red Beds from the Horizons with the Normal and Reverse Magnetization’,Geol. Geophys. 113–118 (in Russian).Google Scholar
  2. Balsley, J. R. and Buddington, A. F.: 1960, ‘Magnetic Susceptibility Anisotropy and Fabric of Some Adirondack Granites and Orthogneisses’,Amer. J. Sci. 258-A, 6–20.Google Scholar
  3. Banerjee, S. K., and Stacey, F. D.: 1967, ‘The High-field Torque-meter Method of Measuring Magnetic Anisotropy of Rocks’, in D. W. Collinson, K. M. Creer, and S. K. Runcorn,Methods in Palaeomagnetism, Amsterdam, 470–476.Google Scholar
  4. Bhatal, R. S.: 1971, ‘Magnetic Anisotropy in Rocks’,Earth-Sci. Rev. 7, 227–253.Google Scholar
  5. Brown, C. H., Khan, M. A., and Stacey, F. D.: 1964, ‘A Search for Flow Structure in Columnar Basalt Using Magnetic Anisotropy Measurements,Pure Appl. Geophys. 57, 61–65.Google Scholar
  6. Bucha, V.: 1975,Geomagnetic field. (In Czech). Academia. Prague.Google Scholar
  7. Čejchanová, B.: 1975,A Study of Magnetic Properties of West-Bohemian Amphibolites, Report of Geofyzika Brno (in Czech).Google Scholar
  8. Chlupáčová, M., Hrouda, F., Janák, F., and Rejl, L.: 1975, ‘The Fabric, Genesis and Relative-age Relations of the Granitic Rocks of the Čistá-Jesenice Massif (Czechoslovakia), as Indicated by Magnetic Anisotropy’,Gerl. Beitr. Geophys. 84, 487–500.Google Scholar
  9. Collinson, D. W., Creer, K. M., and Runcorn, S. K.: 1967,Methods in Palaeomagnetism, Elsevier Publ. Co. Amsterdam.Google Scholar
  10. Coward, M. P.: 1976, ‘Strain within Ductile Shear Zones’,Tectonophysics 34, 181–197.Google Scholar
  11. Crimes, T. P. and Oldershaw, M. A.: 1967, ‘Palaeocurrent Determinations by Magnetic Fabric Measurement on the Cambrian Rocks of St. Tudwal's Peninsula, North Wales’,Geol. J. 5, 217–232.Google Scholar
  12. Daly, L.: 1967a ‘L'anisotropie magnétique des roches et sa mesure par un inductométre à translation’,Annal. Geóphys. 23, 619–627.Google Scholar
  13. Daly, L.: 1967b, ‘Possibilité d'existence dans les roches de plusieurs anisotropies superposées: leur séparation,’Compt. Rend. Acad. Sci. 264, 1377–1380.Google Scholar
  14. Dvořák, J. and Hrouda, F.: 1975, ‘The Reflection of the Deeper Structure of the Artmanov-Osoblaha Block (Nízký Jeseník Mountains, Czechoslovakia) in the Magnetic Anisotropy and Deformation History of Overlying Palaeozoic Sediments’,Věstník ÚÚG 50, 285–296.Google Scholar
  15. Ellwood, B. B.: 1975, ‘Analysis of Emplacement Mode in Basalt from DSDP Holes 319A and 321 Using Anisotropy of Magnetic Susceptibility’,J. Geophys. Res. 80, 4805–4808.Google Scholar
  16. Ellwood, B. B.: 1978a, ‘Measurement of Anisotropy of Magnetic Susceptibility: A comparison of the Precision of Torque and Spinner Magnetometer Systems for Basaltic Specimens’,J. Phys. E.: Sci. Instrum. 11, 71–75.Google Scholar
  17. Ellwood, B. B.: 1978b, ‘Flow and Emplacement Direction Determined for Selected Basaltic Bodies Using Magnetic Susceptibility Anisotropy Measurements’,Earth Plan. Sci. Letters 41, 254–264.Google Scholar
  18. Ellwood, B. B.: 1979a, ‘Anisotropy of Magnetic Susceptibility Variations in Icelandic Columnar Basalts’,Earth Plan. Sci. Letters 42, 209–212.Google Scholar
  19. Ellwood, B. B.: 1979b, ‘Magnetic Susceptibility Anisotropy Measurements of Coal from the South Wales Coal Field: A Coalification Process Indicator’,Geophys. J. Roy. Astron. Soc. 57, 431–443.Google Scholar
  20. Ellwood, B. B. and Fisk, M. R.: 1977, ‘Anisotropy of Magnetic Susceptibility Variations in a Single Icelandic Columnar Basalt’,Earth Plan. Sci. Letters 35, 116–122.Google Scholar
  21. Ellwood, B. B. and Ledbetter, M. T.: 1979, ‘Paleocurrent Indicators in Deep-sea Sediment’,Science 203, 1335–1337.Google Scholar
  22. Ellwood, B. B. and Noltimier, H. C.: 1978, ‘Anisotropy of Magnetic Susceptibility Measurements as a Coal Banding-plane Indicator’,Nature 274, 353–354.Google Scholar
  23. Ende, C., van den: 1975, ‘On the Origin of Anisotropy of Magnetic Susceptibility in Permian Red Beds from the Western Part of the Dome de Barrot (S. France)’, in G. J. Borradaileet al. (eds.),Progress in Geodynamics, North-Holland Publ. Co., 176–189.Google Scholar
  24. Ende, C., van den: 1977, ‘Paleomagnetism of Permian Red Beds of the Dome de Barrot (S. France)’ Thesis University of Utrecht.Google Scholar
  25. Fisher, R.: 1953, ‘Dispersion on a Sphere’,Proc. Roy. Soc. A217, 295–305.Google Scholar
  26. Fucugauchi, J. U.: 1980, ‘On the Relationship Between the Magnetic and Strain Fabric in Slates and Possible Effects of Consistent Instrumental Discrepancies’,Tectonophysics 69, T15-T23.Google Scholar
  27. Fuller, M. D.: 1963, ‘Magnetic Anisotropy and Paleomagnetism’,J. Geophys. Res. 68, 293–309.Google Scholar
  28. Girdler, R. W.: 1961, ‘The Measurement and Computation of Anisotropy of Magnetic Susceptibility of Rocks’,Geophys. J. Roy. Astr. Soc. 5, 34–44.Google Scholar
  29. Graham, J. W.: 1966, ‘Significance of Magnetic Anisotropy in Appalachian Sedimentary Rocks’, in J. S. Steinhart and T. J. Smith (eds)The Earth Beneath the Continents, Geophys. Monogr. 10, 627–648.Google Scholar
  30. Granar, L.: 1958, ‘Magnetic Measurements on Swedish Varved Sediments’,Arkiv Geofys. 3, 1–40.Google Scholar
  31. Halvorsen, E.: 1974, ‘The Magnetic Fabric of Some Dolerite Intrusions, NE. Spitsbergen; Implications for Their Mode of Emplacement’,Earth Plan. Sci. Letters 21, 127–133.Google Scholar
  32. Hamilton, N.: 1963, ‘Susceptibility Anisotropy Measurements on Some Silurian Siltstones’,Nature 197, 170–171.Google Scholar
  33. Hamilton, N.: 1967, ‘Laboratory Redeposition Studies—an appraisal of Apparatus and Technique’, in: D. W. Collinson, K. M. Creer, and S. K. Runcorn (eds),Methods in Palaeomagnetism, Elsevier, Amsterdam, 596–603.Google Scholar
  34. Hamilton, N. and Loveland, P. J.: 1967, ‘Some Preliminary Susceptibility Anisotropy Measurements on Greywackes from the Trinity Peninsula Series of Graham Land’,Br. Antarc. Surv. Bull. 11, 59–71.Google Scholar
  35. Hamilton, N., and Rees, A. I.: 1970, ‘The Use of Magnetic Fabric in Palaeocurrent Estimation’, in S. K. Runcorn (ed.)Palaeogeophysics, Oxford, 445–463.Google Scholar
  36. Hamilton, N., and Rees, A. F.: 1971, ‘The Anisotropy of Magnetic Susceptibility of the Franciscan Rocks of the Diablo Range, Central California’,Geol. Rundsch. 60, 1103–1124.Google Scholar
  37. Hamilton, N., Owens, W. H., and Rees, A. I.: 1968, ‘Laboratory Experiments on the Production of Grain Orientation in Shearing Sand’,J. Geol. 76, 465–472.Google Scholar
  38. Hargraves, R. B.: 1959, ‘Magnetic Anisotropy and Remanent Magnetism in Hemo-ilmenite from Ore Deposits at Allard Lake, Quebec’,J. Geophys. Res. 68, 293–309.Google Scholar
  39. Hedley, I., Bingöl, E., Delaloye, M., Piskin, Ö., and Wagner, J. J.: 1977, ‘Application de l'anisotropie de susceptibilité magnétique à l'étude structurale du pluton de Kozak (Bergama, Turquie)’, C. R. des Séances, SPHN Genève, NS, 11, 31–38.Google Scholar
  40. Heller, F.: 1973, ‘Magnetic Anisotropy of Granitic Rocks of the Bergell Massif (Switzerland)’,Earth Planetary Sci. Letters 20, 180–183.Google Scholar
  41. Henry, B.: 1973, ‘Studies of Microtectonics, Anisotropy of Magnetic Susceptibility and Paleomagnetism of the Permian Dome de Barrot (France): Paleotectonic and Paleosedimentological Implications’,Tectonophysics 17, 61–72.Google Scholar
  42. Henry, B.: 1977, ‘Relations entre déformations et propriétés magnétiques dans des roches volcaniques des Alpes françaises’,Mem. BRGM 91, 79–86.Google Scholar
  43. Henry, B.: 1982, ‘Interpretation quantitative de l'anisotropie de susceptibilité magnétique’, (in preparation).Google Scholar
  44. Hext, G. R.: 1963, ‘The Estimation of Seccond-order Tensors, with Related Tests and Designs,’Biometrika 50, 353–373.Google Scholar
  45. Hrouda, F.: 1976, ‘The Origin of Cleavage in the Light of Magnetic Anisotropy Investigations’,Phys. Earth Planet. Interiors 13, 132–142.Google Scholar
  46. Hrouda, F.: 1978 ‘The Magnetic Fabric in Some Folds,’Phys. Earth Planet. Interiors 17, 89–97.Google Scholar
  47. Hrouda, F.: 1979, ‘The Strain Interpretation of Magnetic Anisotropy in Rocks of the Nízký Jeseník Mountains (Czechoslovakia)’,Sbor. Geol. Věd, UG 16, 27–62.Google Scholar
  48. Hrouda, F.: 1980, ‘Magnetocrystalline Anisotropy of Rocks and Massive Ores: A Mathematical Model Study and Its Fabric Implications’,J. Struc. Geol. 2, 459–462.Google Scholar
  49. Hrouda, F. and Chlupáčová, M.: 1980, ‘The Magnetic Fabric in the Nasavrky Massif’,Cas. Mineral. Geol. 25, 17–27.Google Scholar
  50. Hrouda, F. and Janák, F.: 1971, ‘A study of the Hematite Fabric of Some Red Sediments on the Basis of Their Magnetic Susceptibility Anisotropy’,Sediment. Geol. 6, 187–199.Google Scholar
  51. Hrouda, F. and Janák, F.: 1976, ‘The Changes in Shape of the Magnetic Susceptibility Ellipsoid During Progressive Metamorphism and Deformation’,Teconophysics 34, 135–148.Google Scholar
  52. Hrouda, F. Chlupáčová, M., and Rejl, L.: 1971a, ‘The Mimetic Fabric of Magnetite in Some Foliated Granodiorites, as Indicated by Magnetic Anisotropy’,Earth Plan. Sci. Letters 11, 381–384.Google Scholar
  53. Hrouda, F., Janák, F., Rejl, L., and Weiss, J.: 1971b, ‘The Use of Magnetic Susceptibility Anisotropy for Estimating the Ferromagnetic Mineral Fabrics of Metamorphic Rocks’,Geol. Rdsch. 60, 1124–1142.Google Scholar
  54. Hrouda, F., Janák, F., and Rejl, L.: 1978, ‘Magnetic Anisotropy and Ductile Deformation of Rocks in Zones of Progressive Regional Metamorphism’,Gerl. Beitr. Geophys. 87, 126–134.Google Scholar
  55. Irving, E., and Park, J. R.: 1973, ‘Palaeomagnetism of Metamorphic Rocks: Errors Owing to Intrinsic Anisotropy’,Geophys. J. 34, 489–493.Google Scholar
  56. Ising, E.: 1942, ‘On the Magnetic Properties of Varved Clay’,Arkiv Astron. Fysik 29A (5), 1–37.Google Scholar
  57. Janák, F.: 1965, ‘Determination of Anisotropy of Magnetic Susceptibility of Rocks’,Studia geoph. geod. 9, 290–301.Google Scholar
  58. Janák, F.: 1977, ‘The Effect of the Anisotropy of Magnetic Susceptibility on the Direction of the Vector of Isothermal Remanent Magnetic Polarization’,Studia geoph. geod. 11, 419–429.Google Scholar
  59. Janák, F., Hrouda, F.: 1969, ‘Research of Magnetic Susceptibility and Its Anisotropy’,Report of Geofyzika Brno (in Czech).Google Scholar
  60. Jelínek, V.: 1977, ‘The Statistical Theory of Measuring Anisotropy of Magnetic Susceptibility of Rocks and Its Application’, Geofyzika Brno.Google Scholar
  61. Jelínek, V.: 1978, ‘Statistical Processing of Anisotropy of Magnetic Susceptibility Measured on Groups of Specimens’,Studia geophys. geod. 22, 50–62.Google Scholar
  62. Jelínek, V.: 1981, ‘Characterization of Magnetic Fabric of Rocks’,Tectonophysics 79, 563–567.Google Scholar
  63. Khan, M. A.: 1962, ‘Anisotropy of Magnetic Susceptibility of Some Igneous and Metamorphic Rocks’,J. Geophys. Res. 67, 2873–2885.Google Scholar
  64. King, R. F.: 1966, ‘The Magnetic Fabric of Some Irish Granites’,Geol. J. 5, 43–66.Google Scholar
  65. Kligfield, R., Owens, W. H., and Lowrie, W.: 1982, ‘Magnetic Susceptibility Anisotropy, Strain, and Progressive Deformation in Permian Sediments from the Maritime Alps (France)’,Earth Plan. Sci. Letters 55, 181–189.Google Scholar
  66. Kligfield, R., Lowrie, W., and Dalziel, I. W. D.: 1977, ‘Magnetic Susceptibility as a Strain Indicator in the Sudbury Basin, Ontario’,Tectonophysics 40, 287–308.Google Scholar
  67. Kneen, S. J.: 1976, ‘The Relationship Between the Magnetic and Strain Fabrics of Some Haematitebearing Welsh Slates’,Earth and Planet. Sci. Lett. 31, 413–416.Google Scholar
  68. Kolofiková, O.: 1976, ‘Geological Interpretation of Measurements of Magnetic Properties of Basalts on Example of the Chribský Les Lava Flow of the Velký Roudný Volcano (Nízký Jeseník)’,Čas. Mineral. geol. 21, 387–396. (In Czech).Google Scholar
  69. Kropáček, V. and Krs, M.: 1968, ‘Magnetism and Ferromagnetism of Natural Minerals of the Spinel Group’,Studia geoph. geod. 12, 385–397.Google Scholar
  70. Kropáček, V., Krs, M.: 1971, ‘Magnetism of Natural Pyrrhotite, Hematite and Ilmenite’,Studia geoph. geod. 15, 161–172.Google Scholar
  71. Lowrie, W. and Kligfield, R.: 1981, ‘Effect of Progressive Deformation on the Remanent Magnetization of Redbeds’,EOS Trans. AGU 62, 273.Google Scholar
  72. Nagata, T.: 1961Rock Magnetism, Maruzen, Tokio.Google Scholar
  73. Nye, J. F.: 1957,Physical Properties of Crystals, Clarendon Press, Oxford (Russian translation, Moscow, 1960).Google Scholar
  74. Osipov, Ju.: 1978,Magnetism of Clay Soils, Nedra Moscow. (in Russian).Google Scholar
  75. Owens, W. H.: 1974, ‘Mathematical Model Studies on Factors Affecting the Magnetic Anisotropy of Deformed Rocks’,Tectonophysics 24, 115–131.Google Scholar
  76. Owens, W. H. and Bamford, D.: 1976, ‘Magnetic, Seismic, and Other Anisotropic Properties of Rock Fabrics’,Phil. Trans. R. Soc. Lond. A283, 55–68.Google Scholar
  77. Owens, W. H. and Rutter, E. H.: 1978, ‘The Development of Magnetic Susceptibility Anisotropy Through Crystallographic Preferred Orientation in a Calcite Rock’,Phys. Earth Planet. Interiors 16, 215–222.Google Scholar
  78. Pecherskyi, D. M.: 1965, ‘Anisotropy of Remanent Magnetization—An Important Indicator of the Thermodynamic Regime of the Formation of Rocks’. (In Russian) inNastoyashchee i proskloyem magnitnogo polya Zemli, Moscow, 143–147.Google Scholar
  79. Porath, H.: 1968, ‘The Magnetic Anisotropy of the Yampi Sound Hematite Ores’,Pure Appl. Geophys. 69, 168–178.Google Scholar
  80. Porath, H.: 1971, ‘Anisotropie der magnetischen Suszeptibilität und Sättigungsmagnetisierung als Hilfmittel der Gefügekunde’,Geol. Rundsch. 60, 1088–1102.Google Scholar
  81. Porath, H. and Chamalaun, F. H.: 1966, ‘The Magnetic Anisotropy of Hematite Bearing Rocks’,Pure Appl. Geophys. 64, 81–88.Google Scholar
  82. Porath, H., and Raleigh, C. B.: 1967, ‘An Origin of the Triaxial Basal-plane Anisotropy in Hematite Crystals’,J. Appl. Phys. 38, 2401–2402.Google Scholar
  83. Priyatkin, A. A., and Pisakin, B. N.: 1974, ‘Anisotropy of Isothermal Remanent Magnetization as Indicator of the Fabric Inhomogenity of a Rock’. (In Russian) inMekhanica lithospheri. Moskva, 18–21.Google Scholar
  84. Rad, U. von: 1971, ‘Comparison between “Magnetic” and Sedimentary Fabric in Graded and Crosslaminated Sand Layers, Southern California’,Geol. Rundsch. 60, 331–354.Google Scholar
  85. Rathore, J. S.: 1979a, ‘Magnetic Susceptibility Anisotropy in the Cambrian Slate Belt of North Wales and Correlation with Strain’,Tectonophysics 53, 83–97.Google Scholar
  86. Rathore, J. S.: 1979b. ‘Strain to Magnetic Anisotropy Correlations—A Possible Universal Relationship.EOS Trans. Amer. Geophys. Union 60, 570–571.Google Scholar
  87. Rathore, J. S. and Becke, M., 1980, ‘Magnetic Fabric Analyses in the Gail Valley (Carinthia, Austria) for the Determination of the Sense of Movements Along this Region of the Periadriatic Line’,Tectonophysics 69, 349–368.Google Scholar
  88. Rees, A. I.: 1966, ‘The Effects of Depositional slopes on the Anisotropy of Magnetic Susceptibility of Laboratory Deposited sands’,J. Geol. 74, 856–867.Google Scholar
  89. Rees, A. I.: 1968. ‘The Production of Preferred Orientation in a Concentrated Dispersion of Elongated and Flattened Grains’,J. Geol. 76, 457–465.Google Scholar
  90. Rees, A. I.: 1971, ‘The Magnetic Fabric of a Sedimentary Rock deposited on a Slope’,J. Sediment. Petrol., 307–309.Google Scholar
  91. Rees, A. I., and Woodall, W. A.: 1975: ‘The Magnetic Fabric of some Laboratory-deposited Sediments’,Earth Planet. Sci. Letters 25, 121–130.Google Scholar
  92. Rees, A. I., Rad, U. von, Shepard, F.P.: 1968, ‘Magnetic Fabric of Sediments from the La Jolla Submarine Canyon and Fan, California’,Marine Geol. 6, 145–178.Google Scholar
  93. Schwarz, E. J.: 1974, ‘Magnetic Fabric in Massive Sulphide Deposits’,Van. J. Earth Sci. 11, 1699–1675.Google Scholar
  94. Schwarz, E. J.: 1975, ‘Magnetic Properties of Pyrrhotite and Their Use in Applied Geology and Geophysics’,Geol. Surv. Canada Paper 74-59, pp. 24.Google Scholar
  95. Scriba, H. and Heller, F.: 1978, ‘Measurements of Anisotropy of Magnetic Susceptibility Using Inductive Magnetometers’,J. Geophys. 44, 341–352.Google Scholar
  96. Sholpo, L. E.: 1977,The Utilization of Rock Magnetism for Solving Geological Problems (In Russian). Leningrad.Google Scholar
  97. Singh, J., Sanderson, D. J., and Tarling, D. H.: 1975, ‘The Magnetic Susceptibility Anisotropy of Deformed Rocks from North Cornwall, England’,Tectonophysics 27, 141–153.Google Scholar
  98. Stacey, F. D.: 1960, ‘Magnetic Anisotropy of Igneous Rocks’,J. Geophys. Res. 65, 2429–2442.Google Scholar
  99. Stacey, F. D., Joplin, G., and Lindsay, J.: 1960, ‘Magnetic Anisotropy and Fabric of some Foliated Rocks from S.E. Australia’,Geofiz. Pura Appl. 47, 30–40.Google Scholar
  100. Stoner, E. C.: 1945, ‘The Demagnetizing Factors for Ellipsoids’,Phil. Mag. 36, 803–821.Google Scholar
  101. Symons, D. T. A.: 1967, ‘The Magnetic and Petrologic Properties of a Basalt Column’,Geophys. J. 12, 473–490.Google Scholar
  102. Uyeda, S., Fuller, M. D., Belshé, J. C., and Girdler, R. W.: 1963, ‘Anisotropy of Magnetic Susceptibility of Rocks and Minerals’,J. Geoph. Res. 68, 279–291.Google Scholar
  103. Vašek, P.: 1971,A Contribution to the Petrophysical Characteristics of Amphibolites of the Jeseník Amphibolite Massif. Thesis University Brno. (in Czech)Google Scholar
  104. Wagner, J. J., Hedley, F. G., Steen, D., Tinkler, C., and Vaugnat, M.: 1981, ‘Magnetic Anisotropy and Fabric of some Progressively Deformed Ophiolitic Gabbros’,J. Geophys. Res. 86, 307–315.Google Scholar
  105. Wing-Fatt, L. and Stacey, F. D.: 1966, ‘Magnetic Anisotropy of Laboratory Materials in which Magma Flow is Simulated’,Pure Appl. Geophys. 64, 78–80.Google Scholar
  106. Wood, D. S., Oertel, G., Singh, J., and Bennet, M. F.: 1976, ‘Strain and Anisotropy in Rocks’,Phill. Trans. R. Soc. Lond.,A283, 27–42.Google Scholar
  107. Zinsser, H.: 1977,Die Anisotropie der Magnetisierbarkeit metamorpher Gesteine aus der Umrahmung der Münchberger Gneismasse, Thesis University of Munich.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© D. Reidel Publishing Company 1982

Authors and Affiliations

  • František Hrouda
    • 1
  1. 1.Geofyzika, národní podnikBrnoCzechoslovakia

Personalised recommendations