Advertisement

Geophysical surveys

, Volume 2, Issue 2, pp 153–192 | Cite as

Photodissociation rates in the atmosphere below 100km

  • R. P. Turco
Article

Abstract

In this survey we consider the atmospheric photodissociation rates of the molecules, O2, O3, NO, NO2, N2O, N2O5, HNO3, HO2, H2O, H2O2, CO2, CH4, CH2O, SO2, and H2S. Data for the absorption cross sections and quantum yields of these molecules are assembled here along with other information pertinent to the determination of photodissociation rates. The most recent techniques for computing atmospheric photodissociation rates are discussed. Photodissociation rates for all of the molecules are given at several solar zenith angles for altitudes up to 100 kilometres.

A knowledge of the photodissociation rates of atmospheric molecules is essential to the resolution of many important atmospheric problems. Pollution of the stratosphere by high-flying aircraft, and of the troposphere by other anthropogenic activities, can only be described in terms of complex photochemical-dynamical models in which photolytic processes have a dominant role. A great deal of scientific effort is presently being spent in determining the mechanisms which control ozone, nitric oxide, and excited molecular oxygen concentrations in the mesosphere. Photolytic processes are already known to be important to all of these species. The photodissociation rates presented here can be applied directly to atmospheric problems such as these, or the methodology and data contained in this work can be used to compute photorates as needed.

Keywords

Nitric Oxide Ozone Oxygen Concentration Quantum Yield Photodissociation 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Ackerman, M.: 1971,Mesospheric Models and Related Experiments, D. Reidel, Dordrecht, p. 149.Google Scholar
  2. Ackerman, M., Biaume, F., and Kockarts, G.: 1970,Planetary Space Sci. 18, 1639.Google Scholar
  3. Anderson, J. G.: 1971,J. Geophys. Res. 76, 4634.Google Scholar
  4. Bates, D. R. and Hays, P. B.: 1967,Planetary Space Sci. 15, 189.Google Scholar
  5. Biaume, F.: 1972, to be published.Google Scholar
  6. Blake, A. J., Carver, J. H., and Haddad, G. N.: 1966,J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 6, 451.Google Scholar
  7. Borucki, W.: 1973, private communication.Google Scholar
  8. Calvert, J. G., Kerr, J. A., Demerjian, K. L., and McQuigg, R. D.: 1972,Science 175 751.Google Scholar
  9. Carver, J. H., Horton, P. H., O'Brien, R. S., and Rofe, B.: 1972,Planetary Space Sci. 20, 217.Google Scholar
  10. Chapman, S.: 1931,Proc. Phys. Soc. 43, 483.Google Scholar
  11. Cieslik, S. and Nicolet, M.: 1973,Planetary Space Sci. 21, 925.Google Scholar
  12. Clark, I. D. and Noxon, J. F.: 1970,J. Geophys. Res. 75, 7307.Google Scholar
  13. Dalmon, R.: 1943,Mém. Serv. chim. état. 30, 141.Google Scholar
  14. DeGraff, B. A. and Calvert, J. G.: 1967,J. Am. Chem. Soc. 89, 2247.Google Scholar
  15. DeMore, W. B. and Patapoff, M.: 1972,J. Geophys. Res. 77, 6291.Google Scholar
  16. DeMore, W. B. and Raper, O. F.: 1966,J. Chem. Phys 44, 1780.Google Scholar
  17. Ditchburn, R. W.: 1955,Proc. Royal Soc. London 229A, 44.Google Scholar
  18. Ditchburn, R. W. and Young, P. A.: 1962,J. Atmospheric Terrest. Phys. 24, 127.Google Scholar
  19. Dodge, M. C. and Heicklen, J.: 1970, Penn. State Aeronomy Lab.Report#366.Google Scholar
  20. Driscoll, J. N. and Warneck, P.: 1968,J. Phys. Chem. 72, 3736.Google Scholar
  21. Dutsch, H. U.: 1970,J. Geophys. Res. 75, 1707.Google Scholar
  22. Gaedtke, H., Hippler, H., and Troe, J.: 1972,Chem. Phys. Letters 16, 177.Google Scholar
  23. Glicker, S. and Stief, L. J.: 1971,J. Chem. Phys. 54, 2852.Google Scholar
  24. Golomb, D., Watanabe, K., and Marmo, F. F.: 1962,J. Chem. Phys. 36, 958.Google Scholar
  25. Goodeve, C. F. and Stein, N. O.: 1931,Trans. Faraday Soc. 27, 393.Google Scholar
  26. Goody, R. M.: 1964,Atmospheric Radiation, Vol. I., Oxford Press, London, p. 141.Google Scholar
  27. Griggs, M. 1968,J. Chem. Phys. 49, 857.Google Scholar
  28. Hall, T. C., Jr. and Blacet, F. E.: 1952,J. Chem. Phys. 20, 1745.Google Scholar
  29. Heimerl, J.: 1970,J. Geophys. Res. 75, 5574.Google Scholar
  30. Hilsenrath, E., Seiden, L., and Goodman, P.: 1969,J. Geophys. Res. 74, 6873.Google Scholar
  31. Hochanadel, C. J. and Ghormley, J. A.: 1972,J. Chem. Phys. 56, 4426.Google Scholar
  32. Holt, R. B., McLane, C. K., and Oldenberg, O.: 1948,J. Chem. Phys. 16, 225; Erratum,16, 638.Google Scholar
  33. Hudson, R. D.: 1971,Rev. Geophys. Space Phys. 9, 305.Google Scholar
  34. Hudson, R. D. and Carter, V. L.: 1968,J. Opt. Soc. Am.,58, 1621.Google Scholar
  35. Hudson, R. D., Carter, V. L., and Breig, E. L.: 1969,J. Geophys. Res.,74, 4079.Google Scholar
  36. Hudson, R. D. and Mahle, S. H.: 1972,J. Geophys. Res. 77, 2902.Google Scholar
  37. Huffman, R. E.: 1969,Canad. J. Chem. 47, 1823.Google Scholar
  38. Inn, E. C. Y.: 1972,J. Geophys. Res. 77, 1991.Google Scholar
  39. Inn, E. C. Y. and Heimerl, J. M.: 1971,J. Atmospheric Sci. 28, 838.Google Scholar
  40. Inn, E. C. Y. and Tanaka, Y.: 1953,J. Opt. Soc. Am. 43, 870.Google Scholar
  41. Inn, E. C. Y., Watanabe, K., and Zelikoff, M.: 1953,J. Chem. Phys. 21, 1648.Google Scholar
  42. James, T. C.: 1972, private communication.Google Scholar
  43. Johnston, H. S. and Graham, R.: 1973,J. Phys. Chem. 77, 62.Google Scholar
  44. Johnston, H. S., Graham, R., Martin, D. and Girman, J.: 1973,CIAP Quarterly Report for March–June 1, U. of Cal. Berkeley, Ca.Google Scholar
  45. Jones, E. J. and Wulf, O. R.: 1937,J. Chem. Phys. 5, 873.Google Scholar
  46. Jones, I. T. N. and Wayne, R. P.: 1969,J. Chem. Phys. 51 3617.Google Scholar
  47. Kurylo, J. M., Peterson, N. C., and Braun, W.: 1971,J. Chem. Phys. 54, 943.Google Scholar
  48. Laufer, A. H. and McNesby, J. R.: 1965,Canadian J. Chem. 43, 3487.Google Scholar
  49. Lawrence, G. M.: 1972,J. Chem. Phys. 57, 5616.Google Scholar
  50. Leighton, P. A.: 1961,Photochemistry of Air Pollution, Academic Press, New York.Google Scholar
  51. Magee, E. M.: 1963,J. Chem. Phys. 39, 855.Google Scholar
  52. Mahan, B. H. and Mandal, R.: 1962,J. Chem. Phys. 37, 207.Google Scholar
  53. McNesby, J. R., Tanaka, I., and Okabe, H.: 1962,J. Chem. Phys. 36, 605.Google Scholar
  54. McQuigg, R. D. and Calvert, J. G.: 1969,J. Am. Chem. Soc. 91, 1590.Google Scholar
  55. Mentall, J. E., Gentieu, E. P., Krauss, M. and Neumann, D.: 1971,J. Chem. Phys. 55, 5471.Google Scholar
  56. Mueller, K. G.: 1963,Lockheed Technical Report DASA-1416, Sunnyvale, Ca.Google Scholar
  57. Nakata, R. S., Watanabe K., and Matsunaga, F. M.: 1965,Science of Light 14, 54.Google Scholar
  58. Nakayama, T., Kitamura, M. Y., and Watanabe, K.: 1959,J. Chem. Phys. 30, 1180.Google Scholar
  59. Nicolet, M.: 1970,Proc. 4th ESRIN-ESLAB Symposium.Google Scholar
  60. Ogawa, M.: 1968,J. Geophys. Res. 73, 6759.Google Scholar
  61. Ogawa, M.: 1971,J. Chem. Phys. 54, 2550.Google Scholar
  62. Parkinson, W. H. and Reeves, E. M.: 1969,Solar Physics 10, 342.Google Scholar
  63. Paukert, T. T. and Johnston, H. S.: 1972,J. Chem. Phys. 56, 2824.Google Scholar
  64. Pitts, J. N. Jr., Sharp, J. H., and Chan, S. I.: 1964,J. Chem. Phys. 40, 3655.Google Scholar
  65. Preston, K. F. and Barr, R. F.: 1971,J. Chem. Phys. 54, 3347.Google Scholar
  66. Price, W. C.: 1936,J. Chem. Phys. 4, 147.Google Scholar
  67. Schmidt, S. C., Amme, R. C., Murcray, D. G., Goldman, A., and Bonomo, F. S.: 1972,Nature Physical Sci. 238, 109.Google Scholar
  68. Shardanand: 1969,Phys. Rev. 186, 5.Google Scholar
  69. Shemansky, D. E.: 1972,J. Chem. Phys. 56, 1582.Google Scholar
  70. Strobel, D. F.: 1969,J. Atmospheric Sci. 26, 906.Google Scholar
  71. Sullivan, J. O. and Holland, A. C.: 1966,NASA Report CR-371.Google Scholar
  72. Sun, H. and Weissler, G. L.: 1955,J. Chem. Phys. 23, 1160.Google Scholar
  73. Swider, W.: 1964,Planetary Space Sci. 12, 761.Google Scholar
  74. Swider, W. and Gardner, M. E.: 1967,U.S. Air Force Report #272.Google Scholar
  75. Thompson, B. A., Harteck, P., and Reeves, R. R., Jr.: 1963,J. Geophys. Res. 68, 6431.Google Scholar
  76. Troe, J.: 1973,National Bureau of Standards Report NBSIR 73-206, D. Garvin (ed.), p. 34.Google Scholar
  77. U.S. Standard Atmosphere Supplements: 1966, Superintendent of Documents, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, D.C.Google Scholar
  78. Urey, H. C., Dawsey, L. H., and Rice, F. O.: 1929,J. Am. Chem. Soc. 51, 1371.Google Scholar
  79. Warneck, P., Marmo, F. F., and Sullivan, J. O.: 1964,J. Chem. Phys. 40, 1132.Google Scholar
  80. Watanabe, K.: 1958,Adv. Geophys. 5, 153.Google Scholar
  81. Watanabe, K. and Jursa, A. S.: 1964,J. Chem. Phys. 41, 1650.Google Scholar
  82. Watanabe, K. and Zelikoff, M.: 1953,J. Opt. Soc. Am. 43, 753.Google Scholar
  83. Watanabe, K., Zelikoff, M., and Inn, E. C. Y.: 1953,AFCRC Tech. Report #53-23, Geophys. Res. Paper #21.Google Scholar
  84. Welch, A. R. and Judge, D. L.: 1972,J. Chem. Phys. 57, 286.Google Scholar
  85. Wilkinson, P. G. and Johnston, H. L.: 1950,J. Chem. Phys. 18, 190.Google Scholar
  86. Zelikoff, M. Watanabe, K., and Inn, E. C. Y.: 1953,J. Chem. Phys. 21, 1643.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© D. Reidel Publishing Company 1975

Authors and Affiliations

  • R. P. Turco
    • 1
  1. 1.R. & D. AssociatesSanta MonicaUSA

Personalised recommendations