Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology

, Volume 24, Issue 4, pp 473–480

A revised teacher rating scale for Reactive and Proactive Aggression

  • Kim Brown
  • Marc S. Atkins
  • Mary L. Osborne
  • Mary Milnamow


A teacher rating scale of reactive aggression, proactive aggression, and covert antisocial behavior was evaluated in a normative sample of third- to fifth-grade predominantly white lower middle class boys (N= 186). Factor analysis revealed independent and internally consistent Reactive Aggression (six reactive items), and Proactive Aggression (five proactive items, five covert items) factors. Although the factors were intercorrelated (r= .67), and each factor was significantly correlated with negative peer social status (r= .26 for each, controlling for grade), the independence of the factors was supported by the unique relation of Reactive Aggression with in-school detentions (r= .31), controlling for Proactive Aggression and grade. These results supported the reliability and validity of Reactive and Proactive Aggression as rated by teachers, which should facilitate further research of these constructs.


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Copyright information

© Plenum Publishing Corporation 1996

Authors and Affiliations

  • Kim Brown
    • 1
  • Marc S. Atkins
    • 2
  • Mary L. Osborne
    • 3
  • Mary Milnamow
    • 4
  1. 1.Department of Counseling PsychologyWest Chester UniversityWest ChesterUSA
  2. 2.Institute for Juvenile ResearchUniversity of Illinois at ChicagoChicagoUSA
  3. 3.Department of PediatricsRobert Wood Johnson Medical SchoolNew BrunswickUSA
  4. 4.Department of PsychologyTemple UniversityPhiladelphiaUSA

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