, Volume 96, Issue 1–2, pp 3–12

A method for quantifying differentiation between populations at multi-allelic loci and its implications for investigating identity and paternity

  • David J. Balding
  • Richard A. Nichols

DOI: 10.1007/BF01441146

Cite this article as:
Balding, D.J. & Nichols, R.A. Genetica (1995) 96: 3. doi:10.1007/BF01441146


A method is proposed for allowing for the effects of population differentiation, and other factors, in forensic inference based on DNA profiles. Much current forensic practice ignores, for example, the effects of coancestry and inappropriate databases and is consequently systematically biased against defendants. Problems with the ‘product rule’ for forensic identification have been highlighted by several authors, but important aspects of the problems are not widely appreciated. This arises in part because the match probability has often been confused with the relative frequency of the profile. Further, the analogous problems in paternity cases have received little attention. The proposed method is derived under general assumptions about the underlying population genetic processes. Probabilities relevant to forensic inference are expressed in terms of a single parameter whose values can be chosen to reflect the specific circumstances. The method is currently used in some UK courts and has important advantages over the ‘Ceiling Principle’ method, which has been criticized on a number of grounds.

Key words

DNA profiles paternity Wright'sFST coancestry forensic science 

Copyright information

© Kluwer Academic Publishers 1995

Authors and Affiliations

  • David J. Balding
    • 1
  • Richard A. Nichols
    • 1
  1. 1.School of Mathematical Sciences and School of Biological Sciences, Queen Mary & Westfield CollegeUniversity of LondonLondonUK

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