Urokinase infusion for severe intraventricular haemorrhage
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The purpose of this study was to explore in patients with intraventricular haematomas the effectiveness and complication rate of a treatment protocol including standard ventriculostomy and application of urokinase via the catheter.
Our series includes 16 patients with severe CT-diagnosed intraparenchymal and predominantly intraventricular haemorrhages. In all cases, ventricular drainage was performed. Urokinase treatment was started immediately with intraventricular infusions of 10,000 U urokinase in 5 ml sterile physiological saline every 12 hours. Twelve patients had an excellent outcome, three good and one poor. There were no complications related to urokinase therapy. Side efects of the infusion volume were profuse sweating and headache which were present at 10 ml total infusion volume, but disappeared after reduction to 5 ml. A group of five patients with comparable lesions treated only with ventriculostomy served as controls. Two of them had a good outcome, two a poor one and one died. The late results in the urokinase-treated group were also favourable. Only one of the patients developed hydrocephalus and was shunted. In the control group, two patients required shunting for delayed hydrocephalus.
We conclude that this protocol for urokinase treatment is safe and effective and can be used in almost all patients with intracerebroventricular haemorrhage.
KeywordsIntraventricular haemorrhage urokinase ventriculostomy
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