Virtual Reality

, Volume 5, Issue 1, pp 23–31 | Cite as

Intelligent Cruise-Control Navigation: A new navigation/travel method for use in virtual environments

  • Tae-Wook KwonEmail author
  • Yoon-Chul Choy


An important feature of virtual reality is the facility for the user to move around a virtual environment in a natural and easily controlled manner. Navigation, also called locomotion, travel or motion, involves changing the perspective of the user in the virtual environment (VE). It allows the user to move in the VE as well as reorient themselves to look at the world differently. Natural locomotion methods are able to contribute to a sense of presence and reality. The illusion of presence can be lost through unnatural experiences during travel in the VE. This can be caused by poor interactive metaphors or by experiences which do not agree with the user's everyday understanding of the real world. This paper focuses on the navigation method in the VE, one of the major interfaces for the interactivity between human and VE in virtual reality circumstances and worlds. It proposes a new navigation method. Intelligent Cruise-Control Navigation (ICCN), which provides a natural and user-centred approach to navigation in the VE and can improve the user's sense of reality and presence. ICCN is composed of three major phases: Constant Velocity Navigation, Collision Detection and Avoidance, and Path Adjustment. The ICCN can reduce the user's fatigue and improve the user's presence in the VE. The small experimental study reported in this paper suggests that the ICCN will be a natural, straightforward, and useful navigation interface in VE.

Key Words

Collision detection and avoidance Constant velocity navigation Hands-free navigation Intelligent cruise-control navigation Locomotion Navigation Path adjustment Travel 


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    Iwata H, MatsudaK. Haptic walkthrough simulator: its design and application to studies on cognitive map. In: The 2nd International Conference on Artificial Reality and Tele-existence, ICAT 1992; 185–192Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Darken R, Sibert J. A toolset for navigation in virtual environment. In: Proceedings of ACM User Interface Software & Technology 1993; 157–165Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Darken R, Sibert J. Navigating in large virtual worlds. The International Journal of Human-Computer Interaction 1996; 8(1): 49–72Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Satalich GA. Navigation and wayfinding in VR: finding proper tools and cues to enhance navigation awareness. Master's Thesis, University of Washington, 1995Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Bowman DA, Hodges LF. An evaluation of techniques for grabbing and manipulating remote objects in immersive virtual environment. In: Proceeding of the Symposium on Interactive 3D Graphics 1997; 35–38Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Bowman DA, Koller D, Hodges LF. Methodology for the evaluation of travel technology for immersive virtual environments. Virtual Reality: Research, Development, and Applications 1998; 3(2): 120–131Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Xiao D, Hubbold R. Navigation guided by artificial force fields. In: Proceedings of CHI'98; 18–23Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Li T-Y, Lien J-M, Chiu S-Y, Yu T-H. Automatically generating virtual guided tours. In: Proceedings of Computer Animation 1999; 99–106Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Mackinlay J, Card S, Robertson G. Rapid controlled movement through a virtual 3D workspace. Proceedings of SIGGRAPH (Dallas, TX). Computer Graphics 1990; 24(4): 171–176Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Pausch R, Burnette T, Brockway D, Weiblen M. Navigation and locomotion in virtual worlds via flight into hand-held miniatures. In: Proceedings of SIGGRAPH (Los Angeles, CA) 1995; 399–400Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Stoakley R, Conway M, Pausch R. Virtual reality on a WIM: interactive worlds in miniature. In: Proceedings of CHI'95; 265–272Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Mine M. Virtual environment interaction techniques. Technical Report TR95-018. UNC Chapel Hill Computer Science, 1995Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Slater M, Usoh M. Representations systems, perceptual position, and presence in immersive virtual environments. Presence 1993; 2(3): 221–233Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Slater M, Usoh M, Steed A. Taking steps: the influence of walking technique on presence in virtual reality. ACM Trans. on Computer-Human Interaction 1995; 2(3): 201–219Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag London Ltd 2000

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Multimedia/Graphics Lab, Department of Computer ScienceYonsei UniversitySeoulKorea

Personalised recommendations