Acta Neurochirurgica

, Volume 42, Issue 1–2, pp 5–32

Glioblastoma multiforme: Morphology and biology

  • K. Jellinger
Article

Summary

Glioblastoma multiforme, representing about 50% of all gliomas, encompasses a group of intrinsic tumours of the brain in later years (age peak around 50 years), the morphological hallmarks of which are an ensemble of variations in tumour cell and tissue structure featuring its biological malignancy. Glioblastoma, while sometimes appearing as a distinct “primary” tumour type, is usually accepted as an extreme manifestation of anaplasia and dedifferentiation of glia, mostly astrocytic. The astrocytic nature of most glioblastomas has been confirmed by ultrastructural studies and progressive differentiation of tumours maintained in organotypic tissue culture. Reproducible experimental models are particularly induced by oncogenic RNA (oncorna) viruses. The cell kinetic parameters are similar to those of other solid malignant tumours except for a comparatively low growth fraction of glioblastoma. The frequent occurrence of giant cells as well as of regressive changes with necrosis and vascular responses are indirect (secondary) indicators of malignancy which coincide with histochemical (enzymatic anisochronia) and biochemical data (lower level of glia specific S100 protein than in differentiated gliomas). Vascular proliferation, a characteristic feature of glioblastoma, may occasionally progress to sarcomatous transformation with development of gliosarcomas (mixed glial-mesenchymal tumours). While dissemination of glioblastoma through the cerebrospinal pathways is not uncommon, extraneural distant metastatic spread is rare, and usually observed after craniotomy. The results of modern neuro-oncology support the pathogenetic view that glioblastoma results from neoplastic transformation of glial elements with continuing dedifferentiation. This transformation can be experimentally induced by various factors including oncogenic DNA (oncorna) viruses by using a reverse transcriptase, while there is indirect evidence for an oncorna-virus information in human glioblastoma. The significance of immunological factors in the pathogenesis of brain tumours and in the course of neoplastic transformation of glia is not yet understood, but both morphological and immunological data are in favour of a cell mediated

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Albright, L., Sear, J. A., Ommaya, A. K., Intracerebral delayed hypersensitivity reactions in glioblastoma multiforme patients. Cancer39 (1977), 1331–1336.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. Alvord, E. C., Jr., Why do gliomas not metastasize? Arch. Neurol. (Chic.)33 (1976), 73–75.Google Scholar
  3. Arendt, A., Histologisch-diagnostischer Atlas der Geschwülste des Zentralnerven-systems und seiner Anhangsgebilde. 2. Aufl. Jena: G. Fischer. 1977.Google Scholar
  4. Bailey, P., Cushing, H. A., Classification of the tumours of the glioma group on a histogenetic basis with a correlated study of prognosis. Philadelphia: J. B. Lippincott 1926.Google Scholar
  5. Bakay, L., Basic aspects of brain tumour localisation by radioactive substances. J. Neurosurg.27 (1967), 239–245.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. Batzdorf, U., Malamud, N., The problem of multicentric gliomas. J. Neurosurg.20 (1963), 122–136.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. Bignami, A., Dahl, D., Astrocyte-specific protein and neuroglial differentiation. An immunofluorescence study with antibodies to the glial fibrillary acidic protein. J. comp. Neurol.153 (1974), 27–36.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. Bigner, D. D., Pelgram, C. N., Virus-induced experimental brain tumours and putative associations of viruses with human brain tumours. In: Neoplasia in the central nervous system. Adv. Neurol., Vol.15 (Thompson, R. A., Green, J. R., eds.). New York: Raven Press. 1976.Google Scholar
  9. —, Self, D. J., Frey, J., Ishizaki, R., Langlois, A. J., Swenberg, J. A., Refinement of the avian oncorna-virus induced primary rat tumour model for therapeutic screening. In: Gliomas. Recent results in cancer Research, Vol.51 (Hekmatpanah, J., ed.), pp. 20–34. Berlin-Heidelberg-New York: Springer. 1975.Google Scholar
  10. Birkmayer, G. D., Miller, F., Marguth, F., Oncorna-viral information in human glioblastoma. J. Neurol. Transm.35 (1974), 241–254.Google Scholar
  11. Blaylock, R. L., Kempe, L. G., Review and new proposals for immunotherapy of brain tumours. Neurochir. (Stuttg.)19 (1976), 10–21.Google Scholar
  12. Bloom, H. J. G., Peckham, M. J., Richardson, A. E., Alexander, P., Payne, F. M., Glioblastoma multiforme: a controlled trial to assess the value of specific immunotherapy in patients treated by radical surgery and radiotherapy. Brit. J. Cancer27 (1972), 253–267.Google Scholar
  13. Brisman, R., Housepian, E. M., Chang, C., Duffy, P., Balis, E., Adjuvant nitrosurea therapy for glioblastoma. Arch. Neurol. (Chic.)33 (1976), 745–750.Google Scholar
  14. Budka, H., Partially resected and irradiated cerebellar astrocytoma of childhood: malignant evolution after 28 years. Acta Neurochir. (Wien)32 (1975), 139–146.Google Scholar
  15. —, Wöber, G., Primary glioblastoma of the cerebellum. Acta Neurochir. (Wien)31 (1974), 115–121.Google Scholar
  16. Burger, P. C., Vogel, S., Surgical pathology of the nervous system and its coverings. New York: J. Wiley & Sons. 1976.Google Scholar
  17. Cervos-Navarro, J., Stoltenburg, G., Seltmann, A., Elektronenmikroskopische Befunde zur Mesenchymbeteiligung bei glialen Tumoren. In: Aktuelle Probleme der Neuropathologie, (Jellinger, K., ed.), pp. 193–198. Wien: Facultas. 1973.Google Scholar
  18. Crafts, D. C., Hoshino, T., Wilson, C. B., Current status of population kinetics in gliomas. Bull. Cancer64 (1977), 115–124.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. Cravioto, H., Morantz, R., Drnovsky, F., Ransohoff, J., Effects of immunosupression (thymectomy-ALS) in experimental brain tumour induction. 50th Ann. Meet. Amer. Ass. Neuropath. 1974.Google Scholar
  20. Denlinger, R. H., Swenberg, J. A., Koestner, A., Wechsler, W., Differential effect of immunosuppression on the induction of nervous system and bladder tumours by N-methyl-N-nitrosourea. J. nat. Cancer Inst.50 (1973), 87–93.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. Dohrmann, G. J., Farwell, J. R., Flannery, J. T., Glioblastoma multiforme in children. J. Neurosurg.44 (1976), 422–448.Google Scholar
  22. Duffy, P. E., Graf, L., Rapport, M. M., Identification of glial fibrillary acidic protein by immunoperoxidase method in human brain tumors. J. Neuropath. exp. Neurol.36 (1977), 645–652.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. Eade, O. E., Urich, H., Metastasising gliomas in young subjects. J. Path. (Edbg.)103 (1971), 245–256.Google Scholar
  24. Folkman, J., Merler, E., Abernathy, C., Williams, G., Isolation of a tumor factor responsible for angiogenesis. J. exp. Med.133 (1971), 275–288.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. Gilbert, R. W., Adams, D. O., Bigner, D. D., Cellular immunity to solubilized tumour antigens in inbred rats bearing autochthonous virally induced gliomas. 50th. Ann. Meet. Amer. Ass. Neuropath. 1974.Google Scholar
  26. Globus, J. H., Strauss, I., Spongioblastoma multiforme: a primary malignant form of brain neoplasm; its clinical and anatomical features. Arch. Neurol. Psychiat. (Chic.)14 (1925), 139–191.Google Scholar
  27. Gluszcz, A., Morphogenesis and evolution of intracerebral monstrocellular tumours (“sarcoma monstrocellulare”). Neuropath. Pol.8 (1970), 5–22.Google Scholar
  28. —, Grouping of supratentorial gliomas according to their dominant biomorphological features. Acta neuropath. (Berl.)22 (1972), 110–126.Google Scholar
  29. Goldsmith, M. A., Carter, S. K., Glioblastoma multiforma — a review of therapy. Cancer Treatment Rev.1 (1974), 155–165.Google Scholar
  30. Greene, H. S. N., Harvey, E. K., The development of sarcomas from transplants of the hyperplastic stromal endothelium of glioblastoma multiforme. Amer. J. Path.53 (1968), 483–499.Google Scholar
  31. Grundmann, E., Immunologische Geschwulstabwehr. Verh. Dtsch. Ges. Inn. Med.79 (1973), 118–129.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. Grundmann, E., Allgemeines Tumorwachstum und Tumor-Immunbiologie. Tagg. Ver. Dtsch. Neuropath. Neuroanat.2.–4. 10. 1975, S. 65–66.Google Scholar
  33. Grunert, V., Jellinger, K., Sunder-Plassmann, M., Wöber, G., Glioblastoma multiforme: a preliminary follow-up study. Modern Aspects of Neurosurgery, Vol.3, 108–115. Amsterdam: Exc. med., I.C.S. 287. 1973.Google Scholar
  34. Gullotta, F., ZurIn-vitro-Diagnostik gliös-mesenchymaler Mischgeschwülste. Dtsch. Z. Nervenheilk.186 (1964), 323–335.Google Scholar
  35. Hadfield, M. G., Silverberg, S. G., Light and electron microscopy of giant-cell glioblastoma. Cancer30 (1972), 989–996.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. Haglid, K., Carlsson, C.-A., Stavrou, D., An immunological study of human brain tumours concerning brain specific proteins S-100 and 14.3.2. Acta neuropath. (Berl.)24 (1973), 187–196.Google Scholar
  37. —, Stavrou, D., Weidenbach, W., Carlsson, C.-A., On the emphasis on brain protein in neurooncology. Proc. VIIth. Int. Congr. Neuropath., Vol.1, pp. 575–581; Budapest: Akad. Kiado. 1975.Google Scholar
  38. Heiss, W.-D., Kroiss, A., Kühböck, J., Profanter, W., Combination chemotherapy and CCNU treatment of glioblastoma: a comparative trial. In: Chemotherapy, Vol.5 (Hellmann, K., Konnors, T. A., eds.), pp. 551–556. New York: Plenum Press. 1976.Google Scholar
  39. Hellström, K. E., Hellström, I., Cellular immunity against cancer antigens. Adv. Immunol.18 (1974), 209–277.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. Henschen, F., Tumoren des Zentralnervensystems und seiner Hüllen. In: Handb. spez. path. Anat. Histol., Bd. 13/III, 534–537. Berlin-Göttingen-Heidelberg: Springer. 1955.Google Scholar
  41. Hirano, A., Matsui, T., Vascular structures in brain tumours. Human Path.6 (1975), 611–621.Google Scholar
  42. Hoover, R., Fraumeni, J. F., Risc of cancer in renal-transplant recipients. LancetII (1974), 55–57.Google Scholar
  43. Hoshino, T., Barker, M., Wilson, Ch. B., Boldrey, E., Fewer, D., Cell kinetics in human gliomas. J. Neurosurg.37 (1972), 15–26.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  44. —, Wilson, Ch. B., Ellis, W. G., Gemistocytic astrocytes in gliomas. J. Neuropath. exp. Neurol.34 (1975 a), 263–281.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  45. — —, Rosenblum, M. L., Barker, M., Chemotherapeutic implications of growth fraction and cell cycle time in glioblastomas. J. Neurosurg.43 (1975 b), 127–135.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  46. Huebner, R. J., Todaro, G. J., Oncogenesis of RNA tumour viruses as determinants of cancer. Proc. nat. Acad. Sci. (Wash.)64 (1969), 1087–1094.Google Scholar
  47. Jänisch, W., Güthert, H., Schreiber, D., Pathologie der Tumoren des Zentralnervensystems. Jena: G. Fischer. 1976.Google Scholar
  48. Jänisch, J., Schreiber, W., Experimental brain tumours. In: Handb. Clin. Neurol., Vol.17 (Vinken, P. J., Bruyn, G. W., eds.), pp. 1–41. Amsterdam: North Holland. 1974.Google Scholar
  49. Jellinger, K., Primary intracranial germ cell tumours. Acta neuropath. (Berl.)25 (1973), 291–306.Google Scholar
  50. Johnson, H. A., Haymaker, W. E., Rubini, J. R., Fliedner, T. M., Bond, V. P., Cronkite, E. P., Hughes, W. L., An autoradiographic study of a human brain and glioblastoma multiforme after thein vivo uptake of tritiated thymidine. Cancer13 (1960), 636–642.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  51. Kelly, P. J., Suddith, R. L., Hutchinson, H. T., Werrbach, K., Haber, B., Endothelial growth factor present in tissue cultures of CNS tumours. J. Neurosurg.44 (1976), 342–346.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  52. Kernohan, J. W., Sayre, G. P., Tumours of the central nervous system. Atlas of Tumour Pathology; Sect. X, Fasc. 35. Washington, D.C.: Armed Forces Institute of Pathology. 1952.Google Scholar
  53. —, Uihlein, A., Sarcomas of the brain. Springfield, Ill.: Ch. C Thomas. 1962.Google Scholar
  54. Kersting, G., Tissue culture of human gliomas. In: Progress in Neurological surgery (Krayenbühl, H., Maspes, P. E., Sweet, W. H., eds.), Vol.2, pp. 165–202. Chicago, Ill.: Year Book Med. Publ. 1968.Google Scholar
  55. - Wachstum und Wachstumsformen menschlicher Hirngeschwülstein vitro. Jahrestagg. Ver. Dtsch. Neuropath. Neuroanat., 2.–4. 10. 1975, Köln, p. 77.Google Scholar
  56. Kirsch, W. H., Van Buskirk, J. J., Schulz, D., Tabuchi, K., Thought on the biology and therapy of malignant gliomas. In: Gliomas. Recent Results in Cancer Research, Vol.51 (Hekmatpanah, J., ed.), pp. 110–118. Berlin-Heidelberg-New York: Springer. 1975.Google Scholar
  57. Koestner, A.: Persönl. Mittlg. (1975).Google Scholar
  58. Koos, W. T., Miller, M. H., Intracranial tumours of infants and children. Stuttgart: G. Thieme. 1971.Google Scholar
  59. Kornblith, P. L., Human astrocytoma: serum-mediated immunologic response. Cancer33 (1974), 1512–1519.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  60. Kretschmer, H., Die extrakranielle Metastasierung intrakranieller Geschwülste. Zbl. Neurochir.35 (1974), 81–112.Google Scholar
  61. Kuhlendahl, H., Miltz, H., Die Strahlentherapie der Hirngliome. Dtsch. Ärzteblatt71 (1974), 2376–2378.Google Scholar
  62. Kung, P. C., Lee, J. C., Bakay, L., Vascular invasion by glioma cells. An electron microscopic study. J. Neurosurg.31 (1969). 339–345.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  63. Lantos, P. L., Virus-like particles in brain tumours induced by N-ethyl-N-nitrosourea in rats. Acta neuropath. (Berl.)29 (1974), 211–222.Google Scholar
  64. Lapham, L. W., Subdivision of glioblastoma multiforme on a cytologic and cytochemical basis. J. Neuropath. exp. Neurol.18 (1959), 244–251.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  65. Lauder, L., Aherne, W., The significance of lymphocytic infiltration in neuroblastoma. Brit. J. Cancer26 (1972), 321–330.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  66. Levy, N. L., Mahaley, M. S., Jr., Day, E. D.,In vitro demonstration of cell mediated immunity to human brain tumours. Cancer Res.32 (1972), 477–482.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  67. Long, D. M., Capillary ultrastructure and the blood-brain-barrier in human malignant brain tumours. J. Neurosurg. (1970), 127–144.Google Scholar
  68. Lumsden, C. E., Tissue culture of brain tumours. In: Handbook of Clinical Neurology,17 (Vinken, P. J., Bruyn, G. W., eds.), pp. 42–103. Amsterdam: North Holland Publ. Comp. 1974.Google Scholar
  69. Luse, S. A., Electron microscopic studies of brain tumours. Neurology (Minneap.)10 (1960), 881–905.Google Scholar
  70. Lynn, J. A., Panopio, I. T., Martin, J. H., Shaw, J. L., Race, G. J., Ultrastructural evidence for astroglial histogenesis of the monstrocellular astrocytoma (so-called monstrocellular sarcoma of brain). Cancer22 (1968), 356–366.Google Scholar
  71. Manuelidis, E. E., Solitare, G. B., Glioblastoma multiforme. In: Pathology of the nervous system, Vol.2 (Minckler, J., ed.), pp. 2026–2071. New York: McGraw-Hill. 1971.Google Scholar
  72. Maunoury, R., Vedrenne, C., Constans, J. P., Infiltrations lymphocytaires dans les gliomes humains. Neuro-chirurgie (Paris)21 (1975), 213–222.Google Scholar
  73. Mennel, H. D., Invankovic, S., Experimentelle Erzeugung von Tumoren des Nervensystems. In: Handb. allg. Path. Bd. 6, Teil 7, pp. 33–122. Berlin-Heidelberg-New York: Springer. 1975.Google Scholar
  74. Moertel, C. G., Multiple primary malignant neoplasms. Their incidence and significance, p. 103. New York: Springer. 1966.Google Scholar
  75. Mortara, R., Parker, J. C., Brocks, W. H., Glioblastoma multiforme of the spinal cord. Surg. Neurol.2 (1974), 115–119.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  76. Müller, W., Über das Vorkommen von Glioblastomen im kaudalen Hirnstamm. Acta neurochir. (Wien)28 (1973), 65–80.Google Scholar
  77. —, Afra, D., Schröder, R., Supratentorial recurrences of gliomas. Acta neurochir. (Wien)37 (1977), 75–91.Google Scholar
  78. —, Schröder, R., Zur Diagnostik der Gliome. Neurochir. (Stuttg.)11 (1968), 30–36.Google Scholar
  79. Niedorf, H. R., Das lymphatische Gewebe des Hühnchens nach Bursektomie und experimentelle Onkogenese. Habil. Schr. Münster. 1975.Google Scholar
  80. Oettgen, H. F., Immunologische Aspekte des Krebses. In: Handb. allgem. Path., Band VI, Teil 5, pp. 639–710. Berlin-Heidelberg-New York: Springer. 1974.Google Scholar
  81. Ommaya, A. K., Immunotherapy of gliomas: a review. In: Neoplasia in the central nervous system. R. A. Thompson, J. R. Green (eds.). Advances in Neurology, vol. 15, pp. 337–359. New York: Raven Press. 1976.Google Scholar
  82. Penning, L., Factors governing the uptake of pertechnetate by human brain tumours. Brain96 (1973), 225–234.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  83. Poisson, M., Mathé, G.et al., Traitement des glioblastomes inopérables par une combinaison d'adriamycin, de VM 26 et de CCNU. Nouv. Presse Méd.1975/III, 1957–1961.Google Scholar
  84. Pontén, J., Carcinogenesisin vitro. In: Handb. allg. Path., Band 6, Teil 7, pp. 1–31. Berlin-Heidelberg-New York: Springer. 1975.Google Scholar
  85. Prather, J. L., Long, J. M., Van Heertum, R., Hardman, J., Multicentric and isolated multifocal glioblastoma multiforme simulating metastatic disease. Brit. J. Radiol.48 (1975), 10–15.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  86. Queiroz, L., Queiroz, de S., Glioblastoma multiforme of the medulla oblongata. Acta neuropath. (Berl.)29 (1974), 355–360.Google Scholar
  87. Raimondi, A. J., Ultrastructure and the biology of human brain tumours. In: Progress of Neurological Surgery (Krayenbühl, H., Maspes, P., Sweet, W. H., eds.), Vol.1, pp. 1–36. Chicago: Year Book Med. Publ. 1966.Google Scholar
  88. Rajewsky, M. F., Laerum, O. D., Mechanisms of chemical carcinogenesis in the nervous system: neoplastic transformation of fetal rat brain cells in culture after exposure to ENUin vivo. Jahrestagg. Ver. Dtsch. Neuropath. Köln, 2.–4. 10. 1975, pp. 29–30.Google Scholar
  89. Ridley, A., Antilymphocytic serum and tumour transplantation in the brain. Acta neuropath. (Berl.)19 (1971), 307–317.Google Scholar
  90. —, Cavanagh, J. B., Lymphocytic infiltration in gliomas: evidence of possible host resistance. Brain94 (1971), 117–124.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  91. Ringertz, N., Grading of gliomas. Acta path. microbiol. scand.27 (1950), 51–64.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  92. Robertson, D. M., MacLean, J. D., Nuclear inclusions in malignant gliomas. Arch. Neurol. (Chic.)13 (1965), 287–296.Google Scholar
  93. Rubinstein, L. J., Sarcomas of the nervous system. In: Pathology of the nervous system (Minckler, J., ed.), Vol.2, pp. 2144–2164. New York: McGraw-Hill. 1971.Google Scholar
  94. —, Tumours of the central nervous system. Atlas of Tumour Pathology, 2nd series, Fasc. 6. Washington, D.C.: Armed Forces Institute of Pathology. 1972.Google Scholar
  95. —, Herman, M. M., Studies on the differentiation of human and experimental gliomas in organ culture systems. In: Gliomas. Recent Results in Cancer Research (Hekmatpanah, J., ed.), Vol.51, pp. 35–51. Berlin-Heidelberg-New York: Springer. 1975.Google Scholar
  96. Rubinstein, L. J., Herman, M. M., Foley, V. L.,In vitro characteristics of human glioblastomas maintained in organ culture systems. Amer. J. Path71 (1975), 61–76.Google Scholar
  97. Scartliff, J. H., Radcliffe, W. B., Pittman, H. H., Park, C. H., Vascular structure of glioblastomas. Amer. J. Roentgen.105 (1969) 795–805.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  98. Schiffer, D., Croveri, G., Pautasso, C., Frequenza e significato degli infiltrati linfoplasmacellulari nei gliomi umani. Tumori60 (1974), 177–184.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  99. —, Giordana, M. T., Pezzota, S., Paoletti, P., Chemotherapeutic effects of some alkylating derivatives of nitrosourea on the development of tumours transplacentally induced in rats by E.N.U. Acta neuropath. (Berl.)34 (1976) 21–31.Google Scholar
  100. Scherer, H. J., Cerebral astrocytomas and their derivatives. Amer. J. Cancer40 (1940), 159–198.Google Scholar
  101. Schneck, S. A., Penn, I.,De-novo brain tumours in renal-transplant recipients. Lancet1971 I, 983–986.Google Scholar
  102. Schuster, H., Jellinger, K., Gund, A., Regele, H., Extracranial metastases of anaplastic cerebral gliomas. Acta neurochir. (Wien)35 (1976), 247–259.Google Scholar
  103. Sipe, J. C., Herman, M. M., Rubinstein, L. J., Electron microscopic observations on human glioblastomas and astrocytomas maintained in organ culture systems. Amer. J. Path.73 (1973), 589–600.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  104. Slooff, J. L., Kernohan, J. W., MacCarty, C. S., Primary intramedullary tumours of the spinal cord and flum terminale. Philadelphia: W. R. Saunders. 1964.Google Scholar
  105. Smith, D. R., Hardman, J. M., Earle, K. M., Metastasizing neuroectodermal tumours of the central nervous system. J. Neurosurg.31 (1969), 50–58.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  106. Stavrou, D., Zur vergleichenden Pathologie der Tumoren des Nervensystems. Zbl. Vet. Med. A18 (1971), 585–645.Google Scholar
  107. —, Mögliche immunbiologische Aspekte bei experimentellen neurogenen Tumoren. Jahrestagg. Ver. Dtsch. Neuropath. Neuroanat., 2.–4. 10. 1975, Köln, p. 83.Google Scholar
  108. —, Haglid, K. G., Morphologische und immunologische Untersuchungen zur Histogenese experimenteller Hirntumoren. J. neurol. Sci.20 (1973), 39–50.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  109. —, Zänker, K., Weidenbach, W., Knedel, M., Bedeutung der Histotopochemie und des Isoenzymmusters der Lactatdehydrogenase für die Beurteilung der Dignität von Hirntumoren. Z. Krebsforsch.79 (1973), 319–331.Google Scholar
  110. —, Stochdorph, O., Die Gewebsbilder der Hirngewächse und ihre Ordnung. Stuttgart: G. Fischer. 1955.Google Scholar
  111. —, Problems of pathology of cerebral astrocytomas. In: Modern aspects of Neurosurgery, Vol.3, pp. 96–97. Excerpta med., I.C.S. 287. Amsterdam 1973.Google Scholar
  112. Sumi, S. M., Reifel, E., Unusual nuclear inclusions in astrocytoma. Arch. Path. (Chic.)92 (1971), 14–19.Google Scholar
  113. Sunder-Plaszmann, M., Jellinger, K., Großhirn-Glioblastom bei einem Säugling. Z. Kinderchir.11 (1972), 97–103.Google Scholar
  114. Szent-Györgyi, A., On cancer and cancer research, on cancer and hormones. Chicago-London: Univ. Chicago, Univ. Press. 1962.Google Scholar
  115. Takeuchi, J., Barnard, R. O., Perivascular lymphocytic cuffing in astrocytomas. Acta neuropath. (Berl.) 1976 (in press).Google Scholar
  116. Takeuchi, K., Hoshino, K., Statistical analysis of factors affecting survival after glioblastoma multiforme. Acta neurochir. (Wien)37 (1977), 57–73.Google Scholar
  117. Temin, H. M., The provirus hypothesis: speculations on the significance of RNA-directed DNA synthesis for normal development and for carcinogenesis. J. nat. Cancer Inst.46 (1971), 3–7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  118. —, On the origin of RNA tumour viruses. The Harvey Lectures, ser. 69, pp. 173–198. New York: Academic Press. 1975.Google Scholar
  119. Tempel, K., Stavrou, D., Weidenbach, W., Desoxyribonucleasen in spontanen und experimentellen Tumoren des Nervensystems. J. neurol. Sci.26 (1975), 335–348.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  120. Thomas, C., Kersting, G., Pathomorphologische Vergleichsuntersuchungen diaplazentar und postnatal erzeugter Hirntumoren. Verh. Dtsch. Ges. Path.52 (1968), 384–388.Google Scholar
  121. Tönnis, W., Zülch, K. J., Inktrakranielle Ganglienzellgeschwülste. Zbl. Neurochir.4 (1939), 273–307.Google Scholar
  122. Tooze, J. (ed.), The molecular biology of tumour viruses. Cold Spring Harbor Lab. 1973.Google Scholar
  123. Trouillas, P., Immunologie et immunothérapie des tumeurs cérébrales. Etat actuel. Rev. neurol. (Paris)128 (1973), 23–38.Google Scholar
  124. —, Aimard, G., Immunologie et immunothérapie en relation des tumeurs cérébrales. In: Immunopathologie du systéme nerveux (Schuller, M., ed.), pp. 257–272. Paris: INSERM. 1975.Google Scholar
  125. Underwood, J. C. E., Carr., I., The ultrastructure of the lymphoreticular cells in non-lymphoid human neoplasms. Virchows. Arch., Abtlg. B. Zellpath.12 (1972), 39–50.Google Scholar
  126. Virchow, R., Die krankhaften Geschwülste. Berlin: Hirschwald. 1863/65.Google Scholar
  127. Vogt, U., Neurologische Diagnose und Verlauf des Glioblastoms. Dtsch. med. Wschr.97 (1972), 717–722.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  128. Waggener, J. D., Beggs, J. L., Vasculature of neural neoplasms. In: Neoplasia in the central nervous system, R. A. Thompson, J. R. Green (eds.). Advances in Neurology, vol. 15, pp. 27–49. New York: Raven Press. 1976.Google Scholar
  129. Wahlstrom, T., Linder, E., Saksela, E., Westermark, R., Tumour specific membrane antigens in established cell lines from gliomas. Cancer34 (1974), 274–279.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  130. Weinberg, P., Neuroradiologic aspects of gliomas. In: Gliomas. Recent Results in Cancer Research (Hekmatpanah, J., ed.), Vol.51, pp. 65–78. Berlin-Heidelberg-New York: Springer. 1975.Google Scholar
  131. Willis, R. A., Pathology of tumours. London: Butterworth. 1960.Google Scholar
  132. Willson, N., Duffy, P. E., Morphologic changes associated with combined BCNU and radiation therapy in glioblastoma multiforme. Neurology (Minneap.)24 (1974), 465–471.Google Scholar
  133. Wilson, Ch. B., Chemotherapy: current results and future prospects. In: Gliomas (Hekmatpanah, J., ed.), pp. 119–124. Berlin-Heidelberg-New York: Springer. 1975.Google Scholar
  134. —, Chemotherapy of brain tumours. In: Neoplasia in the central nervous system. Advances in Neurology, Vol.15 (Thompson, R. A., Green, J. R., eds.). New York: Raven Press. 1976.Google Scholar
  135. Wollemann, H., Biochemistry of brain tumours. Budapest: Akademiai Kiado. 1974.Google Scholar
  136. Young, H. F., Sakalas, R., Kaplan, A. M., Immunologic depression in cerebral gliomas. In: Neoplasia in the central nervous system. R. A. Thompson, J. R. Green (eds.). Advances in Neurology, vol. 15, pp. 327–335. New York: Raven Press. 1976.Google Scholar
  137. Yung, W. K., Blank, N. K., Vick, N. A., “Glioblastoma”: Introduction of a reproducible autochthonous tumour in rats with murine sarcoma virus. Neurology (Minneap.)26 (1976), 76–83.Google Scholar
  138. Zimmerman, H. M., Brain tumours: their incidence and classification in man and their experimental production. Ann. N.Y. Acad. Sci.159 (1969), 337–359.Google Scholar
  139. Zülch, K. J., Biology and morphology of glioblastoma multiforme. Acta radiol. Ther.8 (1969), 65–77.Google Scholar
  140. —, Atlas of Brain Tumours. Berlin-Heidelberg-New York: Springer. 1971.Google Scholar
  141. —, Wechsler, W., Pathology and classification of gliomas. In: Progress in Neurological Surgery, Vol.1. Basel: Karger. 1968.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 1978

Authors and Affiliations

  • K. Jellinger
    • 1
    • 2
  1. 1.Division of Special NeuropathologyNeurological Institute of the University of WienAustria
  2. 2.L. B. Institute of Clinical NeurobiologyWienAustria

Personalised recommendations