A ring electrode to record extraocular muscle activities during skull base surgery
- 49 Downloads
A ring-shaped electrode was developed and used in 20 patients to record evoked electromyographic responses directly from the extraocular muscles during skull base surgery. Intra-operative monitoring with this electrode helps the surgeon to localize the nerves that innervate the extraocular muscles precisely and to refrain from disturbing important neural structures during operations. Such monitoring also provides some insight into the pathophysiology of the dysfunction of these nerves resulting from skull base lesions.
KeywordsAbducens nerve extraocular muscles intra-operative monitoring nerve injury oculomotor nerve skull base surgery
Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.
- 1.Carpenter DE, Subramony SH (1990) Electromyography. In: Youmans JR (ed) Neurological surgery, 3rd Ed. WB Saunders, Philadelphia, pp 470–499Google Scholar
- 2.Daube JR, Harper CM (1989) Surgical monitoring of cranial and peripheral nerves. In: Desmedt JE (ed) Neuromonitoring in surgery. Elsevier, New York, pp 115–138Google Scholar
- 4.Møller AR (1990) Intraoperative monitoring of evoked potentials: an update. In: Wilkins RH, Rengachary SS (eds) Neurosurgery update I. McGraw-Hill, New York, pp 169–176Google Scholar