Employee Responsibilities and Rights Journal

, Volume 5, Issue 3, pp 231–240 | Cite as

What's loyalty?

  • Michael J. Withey
  • William H. Cooper
Article

Abstract

Loyalty in organizations has proved difficult to predict. One reason is that loyalty is complex and poorly understood. We report two studies that attempt to understand and predict loyalty by focusing on two components of the construct: active-constructive loyalty and passive-constructive loyalty. In the first study, we found that active acts of loyalty were predicted by variables quite different from those that predicted passive loyalty. The second study found that people identified by peers as high-loyalty employees performed many more active sets of loyalty than did those who were identified as low-loyalty employees. We conclude that loyalty consists of both active-constructive and passive-constructive behavior.

Key Words

loyalty commitment active passive 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Becker, H. S. (1960). Notes on the concept of commitment.American Journal of Sociology, 66, 32–40.Google Scholar
  2. Brayfield, A. H., & Rothe, H. F. (1951). An index of job satisfaction.Journal of Applied Psychology, 35, 307–311.Google Scholar
  3. Buss, D. M., & Craik, K. H. (1983). The act frequency approach to personality.Psychological Review, 90, 105–126.Google Scholar
  4. Cooper, W. H., Dyke, L., & Kay, P. (1990) Developing act frequency measures of organizational behaviors. In Jauch, L. R., & Wall, J. L. (Eds.),Academy of Management Best Paper Proceedings, 396–399. San Francisco, CA: Academy of Management.Google Scholar
  5. Farrell, D. (1983). Exit, voice, loyalty, and neglect as responses to job dissatisfaction: A multidimensional scaling study.Academy of Management Journal, 26, 596–607.Google Scholar
  6. Graham, J. W. (1990, November). Hirschman's loyalty construct. Paper presented at the annual meeting of the Council on Employee Responsibilities and Rights. Orlando, Florida.Google Scholar
  7. Graen, G. B., Liden, R. C., & Hoel, W. (1982). Role of leadership in the employee withdrawal process.Journal of Applied Psychology, 67, 868–872.Google Scholar
  8. Hirschman, A. O. (1970).Exit, Voice, and Loyalty: Responses to Decline in Firms, Organizations, and States. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.Google Scholar
  9. Kolarska, L., & Aldrich, H. (1980). Exit, voice and silence: Consumers' and managers' responses to organizational decline.Organization Studies, 1, 41–58.Google Scholar
  10. Porter, L. W., Steers, R. M., Mowday, R. T., & Boulian, P. V. (1974). Organizational commitment, job satisfaction, and turnover among psychiatric technicians.Journal of Applied Psychology, 59, 603–609.Google Scholar
  11. Price, J. L., & Bluedorn, A. C. (1979). Test of a causal model of organizational turnover. In Dunkerley, D., & Salaman, G. (Eds.),International Yearbook of Organizational Studies, 217–236. London: Routledge & Kegan Paul.Google Scholar
  12. Rotter, J. B. (1966). Generalized expectancies for internal versus external control of reinforcement.Psychological Monographs, 80, whole, No. 609.Google Scholar
  13. Rusbult, C. E., Farrell, D., Rogers, G., & Mainous, A. G. III. (1988). Impact of exchange variables on exit, voice, loyalty, and neglect: An integrative model of responses to declining job satisfaction.Academy of Management Journal, 31, 599–627.Google Scholar
  14. Withey, M. J., & Cooper, W. H. (1989). Predicting exit, voice, loyalty and neglect.Administrative Science Quarterly, 34, 521–539.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Plenum Publishing Corporation 1992

Authors and Affiliations

  • Michael J. Withey
    • 1
  • William H. Cooper
    • 2
  1. 1.Faculty of Business AdministrationMemorial University of NewfoundlandSt. John'sCanada
  2. 2.School of BusinessQueen's UniversityKingstonCanada

Personalised recommendations