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Colloid and Polymer Science

, Volume 257, Issue 3, pp 277–285 | Cite as

The colloidal behaviour of kraft lignin

Part I.: Association and gelation of kraft lignin in aqueous solutions
  • T. Lindströmn
Original Contributions Colloid Science

Summary

This paper deals with an experimental investigation aimed at determining the extent of and the nature of the aggregation behaviour of kraft lignin (Indulin AT), in aqueous solutions.

Gel permeation chromatography (GPC) in dimethylformamide (DMF) revealed a bimodal molecular weight distribution of kraft lignin. The high molecular weight fraction (sol fraction) was isolated by dialysis and used in this investigation.

Stable lignin sols in aqueous solutions, which were not light scattering as determined by the naked eye, were prepared. The extent of aggregation of these sols was followed viscometrically under different pH-conditions. Aggregation was found when the pH was lowered.

The extent of aggregation as determined from viscosity measurements was found to increase irreversibly with storage time and storage temperature. Prolonged heating induced the formation of a 3-dimensional network (gelation). Although both association and gelation were thermally irreversible, it was found that the cohesive interactions could be broken by deprotonization of the carboxylic groups. The aggregation is discussed with reference to previous publications in the field.

It is suggested that the long-range van der Waals forces play an important role together with intermolecular and intramolecular associations of the carboxylic groups.

Keywords

Lignin Carboxylic Group Molecular Weight Distribution High Molecular Weight Fraction Cohesive Interaction 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Zusammenfassung

Vorliegender Artikel berichtet über experimentelle Untersuchungen mit der Zielsetzung, des Ausmaß und die Natur des Aggregationsverhaltens von Kraftlignin (Indulin AT) in wäßrigen Lösungen zu bestimmen.

Gelpermeations-Chromatographie (GPC) in Dimethylformamid (DMF) zeigte, daß beim Kraftlignin eine bimodale Molekulargewichtsverteilung vorlag. Die hochmolekulare Fraktion (Sol-Fraktion) wurde durch Dialyse isoliert und in vorliegender Untersuchung verwendet.

Klare stabile Ligninsole wurden in wäßrigen Lösungen erhalten, die visuell keine Lichtstreuung zeigten. Das Ausmaß der Aggregation dieser Sole unter verschiedenen pH-Werten wurde viskosimetrisch verfolgt. Eine Aggregation wurde beobachtet, wenn der pH-Wert herabgesetzt wurde.

Das Ausmaß der Aggregation, bestimmt aus den viskosimetrischen Messungen, nahm irreversibel mit der Lagerungszeit und Lagerungstemperatur zu. Lange andauerndes Erhitzen führte zur Bildung eines dreidimensionalen Netzwerks (Gelierung). Obwohl Assoziation wie auch Gelierung thermisch irreversibel waren, wurde gefunden, daß die kohäsiven Bindungskräfte durch Deprotonisierung der Carboxylgruppen aufgebrochen werden konnten. Die Aggregation wird im Lichte früherer Veröffentlichungen auf diesem Gebiet diskutiert.

Es wird angenommen, daß die weitreichenden van der Waalsschen Kräfte zusammen mit inter- und intramolekularen Assoziationen der Carboxylgruppen eine wichtige Rolle spielen.

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Copyright information

© Dr. Dietrich Steinkopff Verlag 1979

Authors and Affiliations

  • T. Lindströmn
    • 1
  1. 1.Swedish Forrest Produst Research LaboratoryStockholm

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