Protoplasma

, Volume 154, Issue 1, pp 25–33 | Cite as

Selenium deficiency in Crustacea

An ultrastructural approach to antennal damage inDaphnia magna Straus
  • B. -P. Elendt
Article

Summary

The effect of selenium deprivation onDaphnia magna was examined under controlled rearing conditions in a synthetic culture medium. After three generations, fertility was significantly reduced in deprived (Se) animals. Growth and mortality of parent daphnids and development of parthenogenetic eggs were not affected during this period. In the fourth generation Se daphnids rejected parts of their second antennae. At the ultrastructural level antennal muscle tissue was severely affected. Animals deprived of selenium had mitochondria and sarcoplasmic reticulum with myelin-like alterations. Giant lysosomes were present and complete lysis of muscle fibrils was observed in antennal muscle cells. These alterations are characteristic features of peroxidic damage in tissues. This interpretation is consistent with the function of selenium as a constituent of the enzyme glutathione peroxidase which protects cells from peroxidation. Selenium should be included in synthetic culture media for daphnids.

Keywords

Selenium deficiency Culture medium Crustacea Daphnia magna Ultrastructure Cytopathology 

Abbreviations

GSH-Px

selenium dependent glutathione peroxidase

Se+/Se

selenium supplemented (control)/selenium deprived animals

SOD

Superoxide dismutase

SR

sarcoplasmic reticulum

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Bell JG, Pirie BJS, Adron JW, Cowey CB (1986) Some effects of selenium deficiency on glutathione peroxidase (EC 1.11.1.9) activity and tissue pathology in rainbow trout (Salmo gairdneri). Br J Nutr 55: 305–311Google Scholar
  2. Binder G (1932) Das Muskelsystem vonDaphnia. Int Rev Ges Hydrobiol 26: 54–111Google Scholar
  3. Calvin HI (1978) Selective incorporation of selenium-75 into a polypeptide of the rat sperm tail. J Exp Zool 204: 445–452Google Scholar
  4. Christophersen BO (1968) Formation of monohydroxy-polyenic fatty acids from lipid peroxides by glutathione peroxidase. Biochim Biophys Acta 164: 35–36Google Scholar
  5. Chu SP (1942) The influence of the mineral composition of the medium on the growth of planktonic algae. Part I. Methods and culture media. J Ecol 30: 284–325Google Scholar
  6. Doucette GJ, Price NM, Harrison PJ (1987) Effects of selenium deficiency on the morphology and ultrastructure of the coastal marine diatomThalassiosira pseudonana (Bacillariophyceae). J Phycol 23: 9–17Google Scholar
  7. Elendt B-P (1986) Untersuchungen über Probleme bei der Durchführung von Daphnientests. Diploma thesis, Fachbereich Biologie der Universität Hamburg, Federal Republic of GermanyGoogle Scholar
  8. - (1989) Effects of starvation on growth, reproduction, survival and biochemical composition ofDaphnia magna. Arch Hydrobiol (in press)Google Scholar
  9. Flohé L, Schlegel W (1971) Glutathion-Peroxidase, IV. Intrazelluläre Verteilung des Glutathion-Peroxidase-Systems in der Rattenleber. Hoppe Seylers Z Physiol Chem 352: 1401–1410Google Scholar
  10. —, Günzler WA, Schock HH (1973) Glutathione peroxidase: a selenoenzyme. FEBS Lett 32: 132–134Google Scholar
  11. Fridovich I (1978) The biology of oxygen radicals. Science 201: 875–880Google Scholar
  12. Green RC, O'Brien PJ (1970) The cellular localisation of glutathione peroxidase and its release from mitochondria during swelling. Biochim Biophys Acta 197: 31–39Google Scholar
  13. Grossmann A, Wendel A (1983) Non-reactivity of the selenoenzyme glutathione peroxidase with enzymatically hydroperoxidized phospholipids. Eur J Biochem 135: 549–552Google Scholar
  14. — — (1984) Phospholipid peroxides are not substrates for selenium-dependent glutathione peroxidase. In: Bors W, Saran M, Tait D (eds) Oxygen radicals in chemistry and biology. W de Gruyter, Berlin, pp 719–722Google Scholar
  15. ISO (1982) International Organisation for Standardisation: water quality — determination of the inhibition of the mobility ofDaphnia magna Straus (Cladocera, Crustacea). ISO 6341–1982 (E)Google Scholar
  16. Karnovsky MJ (1971) Use of ferrocyanide-reduced osmium tetroxide in electron microscopy. J Cell Biol 51: 146A (Abstract)Google Scholar
  17. Keating KI, Dagbusan BC (1984) Effect of selenium deficiency on cuticle integrity inCladocera (Crustacea). Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 81: 3433–3437Google Scholar
  18. Kennedy S, Rice DA (1988) Selective morphologic alterations of the cardiac conduction system in calves deficient in vitamin E and selenium. Am J Pathol 130: 315–325Google Scholar
  19. Ladenstein R, Epp O, Bartels K, Jones A, Huber R, Wendel A (1979) Structure analysis and molecular model of the selenoenzyme glutathione peroxidase at 2.8A resolution. J Mol Biol 134: 199–218Google Scholar
  20. Mills GC (1957) Hemoglobin catabolism. I. Glutathione peroxidase, an erythrocyte enzyme which protects hemoglobin from oxidative breakdown. J Biol Chem 229: 189–197Google Scholar
  21. Molenaar I, Vos J, Jager FC, Hommes FA (1970) The influence of vitamin E deficiency on biological membranes. An ultrastructural study on the intestinal epithelial cells of ducklings. Nutr Metabol 12: 358–370Google Scholar
  22. Müller H (1972) Wachstum und Phosphatbedarf vonNitzschia actinastroides (Lemm.) v. Goor in statischer und homokontinuierlicher Kultur unter Phosphatlimitierung. Arch Hydrobiol [Suppl 38]: 399–484Google Scholar
  23. NRC (1983) Selenium in nutrition. National Research Council USA, Subcommitee on Selenium. National Academy Press, Washington, DC, pp 1–174Google Scholar
  24. Oshino N, Chance B (1977) Properties of glutathione release observed during reduction of organic hydroperoxide, demethylation of aminopyrine and oxidation of some substances in perfused rat liver, and their implications for the physiological function of catalase. Biochem J 162: 509–525Google Scholar
  25. Otter R, Reiter R, Wendel A (1989) Alterations in the proteinsynthesis, -degradation and/or -secretion rates in hepatic subcellular fractions of selenium-deficient mice. Biochem J 258: 535–540Google Scholar
  26. Reynolds E (1963) The use of lead citrate at high pH as an electron opaque stain in electron microscopy. J Cell Biol 17: 208–212Google Scholar
  27. Root EJ, Combs GF Jr (1988) Disruption of endoplasmic reticulum is the primary ultrastructural lesion of the pancreas in the selenium-deficient chick (42697). Proc Soc Exp Biol Med 187: 513–521Google Scholar
  28. Rotruck JT, Pope AL, Ganther HE, Swanson AB, Hafeman DG, Hoekstra WG (1973) Selenium: biochemical role as a component of glutathione peroxidase. Science 179: 588–590Google Scholar
  29. SAS (1987) SAS/STAT guide personal computers, version 6 ed. SAS Institute, Cary, NC, pp 1–1028Google Scholar
  30. Schwarz K, Foltz CM (1957) Selenium as an integral part of factor 3 against dietary necrotic liver degeneration. J Am Chem Soc 79: 3292–3293Google Scholar
  31. Shamberger RJ (1983) Biochemistry of selenium. Frieden E (ed) Biochemistry of the elements, vol 2. Plenum Press, New York, pp 1–334Google Scholar
  32. Slater TF (1984) Free-radical mechanisms in tissue injury. Biochem J 222: 1–15Google Scholar
  33. Spurr AR (1969) A low viscosity embedding medium for electron microscopy. J Ultrastruct Res 26: 31–43Google Scholar
  34. Ursini F, Maiorino M, Gregolin C (1983) A glutathione peroxidase active on phospholipid hydroperoxides protects phosphatidyl-choline liposomes and biomembranes from peroxidation. In: Greenwald RA, Cohen G (eds) Oxy radicals and their scavenger systems, vol 2. Cellular and medical aspects. Elsevier, New York, pp 224–229Google Scholar
  35. — — — (1985) The selenoenzyme phospholipid hydroperoxide glutathione peroxidase. Biochim Biophys Acta 839: 62–70Google Scholar
  36. Van Vleet JF, Ferrans VJ (1977) Ultrastructural alterations in gizzard smooth muscle of selenium-vitamin-E-deficient ducklings. Avian Dis 21: 351–542Google Scholar
  37. —, Ruth G, Ferrans VJ (1976) Ultrastructural alterations in skeletal muscle of pigs with selenium-vitamin E deficiency. Am J Vet Res 37: 911–922Google Scholar
  38. Wallace E, Calvin HI, Cooper GW (1983) Progressive defects observed in mouse sperm during the course of three generations of selenium deficiency. Gamete Res 4: 377–387Google Scholar
  39. Weitzel F, Ursini F, Wendel A (1989) Dependence of mouse liver phospholipid hydroperoxide glutathione peroxidase on dietary selenium. In: Wendel A (ed) Selenium in biology and medicine. Springer, Berlin Heidelberg New York Tokyo, pp 40–43Google Scholar
  40. Wendel A, Jaeschke H (1988) Influences of selenium deficiency and glutathione status on liver metabolism. In: Chow CK (ed) Cellular antioxidant defense mechanisms, vol 2. CRC Press, Boca Raton, pp 133–147Google Scholar
  41. —, Otter R (1987) Alterations in the intermediary metabolism of selenium-deficient mice. Biochim Biophys Acta 925: 94–100Google Scholar
  42. —, Pilz W, Ladenstein R, Sawatzki G, Weser U (1975) Substrateinduced redox change of selenium in glutathione peroxidase studied by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Biochim Biophys Acta 377: 211–215Google Scholar
  43. Winner RW (1976) Toxicity of copper to daphnids in natural and reconstituted waters. Ecol Res Ser EPA-600/3-76-051 US EPA, pp 1–69Google Scholar
  44. — (1984) Selenium effects on antennal integrity and chronic toxicity inDaphnia pulex (de Geer). Bull Environ Contam Toxicol 33: 605–611Google Scholar
  45. Witting LA (1980) Vitamin E and lipid antioxidants in free-radicalinitiated reactions. In: Pryor WA (ed) Free radicals in biology, vol 4. Academic Press, New York, pp 295–319Google Scholar
  46. Yarrington JT, Whitehair CK (1975) Ultrastructure of gastrointestinal smooth muscle in ducks with a vitamin E-selenium deficiency. J Nutr 105: 782–790Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 1990

Authors and Affiliations

  • B. -P. Elendt
    • 1
  1. 1.Zoology Department I (Morphology/Ecology)University of HeidelbergHeidelberg

Personalised recommendations