Advertisement

Marine Biology

, Volume 106, Issue 3, pp 473–485 | Cite as

Community structure and vertical distribution of cyclopoid copepods in the Red Sea

I. Central Red Sea, autumn 1980
  • R. Böttger-Schnack
Article

Abstract

The species abundance, vertical distribution and diurnal vertical migration of cyclopoid copepods was analyzed in the central Red Sea in October–November 1980. Samples were taken to a depth of 450 m with a multiple opening — closing plankton net with 0.1-mm mesh-size. Selected important species were allocated to five different groups according to their depth distributions during daytime. The greatest number of species (9) was found in the lower epipelagic zone (40 to 100 m), below the strong seasonal thermocline. The lowest number of species (1) occurred in the upper part of the upper mesopelagic zone (100 to 250 m), which is characterized by a strong dissolved oxygen gradient. Five species had a bimodal vertical distribution, with dual peak abundances in the epipelagic and upper mesopelagic zones. Distinct differences in distribution patterns were noted between sexes and/or developmental stages. The vertical range of diurnally migrating species was small, usually less than 50 to 100 m. Characteristic diurnal changes in the vertical succession of dominant species occur within the epipelagic zone (0 to 100 m). Species-specific vertical distribution patterns are compared with published data from other areas. A conspicuous difference in the proportion of carcasses was noted between species: small species (<0.5 mm in length) had a much higher proportion of carcasses, usually between 20 and 40% of the total standing stock, than larger ones (<5%). The potential causes of this phenomenon, which may be due to (1) methodological bias, (2) a lower sinking velocity of small carcasses, or (3) a higher mortality rate of small species, are discussed.

Keywords

Vertical Distribution Small Species Standing Stock Cyclopoid Copepod Seasonal Thermocline 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Literature cited

  1. Ambler, J. W., Miller, C. B. (1987). Vertical habitat-partitioning by copepodites and adults of subtropical oceanic copepods. Mar. Biol. 94: 561–577Google Scholar
  2. Apstein, C. (1910). Hat ein Organismus in der Tiefe gelebt, in der er gefischt ist? Int. Revue. ges. Hydrobiol. Hydrogr. 3: 17–33Google Scholar
  3. Beckmann, W. (1984). Mesozooplankton distribution on a transect from the Gulf of Aden to the central Red Sea during the winter monsoon. Oceanol. Acta 7: 87–102Google Scholar
  4. Beckmann, W. (1988). The zooplankton community in the deep bathyal and abyssal zones of the eastern North Atlantic. Preliminary results and data lists from MOCNESS hauls during cruise 08 of the RV “POLARSTERN”. Ber. Polarforsch. (Bremerhaven) 42: 1–57Google Scholar
  5. Böttger, R. (1982). Studies on the small invertebrate plankton of the Sargasso Sea. Helgoländer Meeresunters. 35: 369–383Google Scholar
  6. Böttger, R. (1985). Untersuchungen zur Verteilung der kleinen Metazoa im Plankton des Roten Meeres, unter besonderer Berücksichtigung cyclopoider und harpacticoider Copepoden. Dissertation Universität HamburgGoogle Scholar
  7. Böttger, R. (1987). The vertical distribution of micro- and small mesozooplankton in the central Red Sea. Biol. Oceanogr. 4: 383–402Google Scholar
  8. Böttger-Schnack, R. (1988). Observations on the taxonomic composition and vertical distribution of cyclopoid copepods in the central Red Sea. In: Boxshall, G. A., Schminke, H. K. (eds.) Biology of copepods. Proceedings of the Third International Conference on Copepoda, London, August 10–14, 1987. Hydrobiologia 167/168: 311–318. Kluwer Academic Press, DordrechtGoogle Scholar
  9. Böttger-Schnack, R. (1990). Community structure and vertical distribution of cyclopoid copepods in the Red Sea. II. Aspects of seasonal and regional differences. Mar. Biol. 106: 487–501Google Scholar
  10. Böttger-Schnack, R., Boxshall, G. A. (in press). Two newOncaea species (Copepoda: Poecilostomatoida) from the Red Sea. J. Plankton Res.Google Scholar
  11. Böttger-Schnack, R., Schnack, D. (1989). Vertical distribution and population structure ofMacrosetella gracilis (Copepoda: Harpacticoida) in the Red Sea in relation to the occurrence ofOscillatoria (Trichodesmium) spp. (Cyanobacteria). Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser. 52: 17–31Google Scholar
  12. Böttger-Schnack, R., Schnack, D., Weikert, H. (1989). Biological observations on small cyclopoid copepods in the Red Sea. J. Plankton Res. 11: 1089–1101Google Scholar
  13. Boxshall, G. A. (1977a). The depth distributions and community organization of the planktonic cyclopoids (Crustacea: Copepoda) in the Cape Verde Islands regions. J. mar. biol. Ass. U.K. 57: 543–568Google Scholar
  14. Boxshall, G. A. (1977b). The planktonic copepods of the northeastern Atlantic Ocean: some taxonomic notes on the Oncaeidae (Cyclopoida). Bull. Br. Mus. nat. Hist. (D: Zool.) 31: 103–155Google Scholar
  15. Boxshall, G. A., Böttger, R. (1987). Two new species ofOncaea (Copepoda: Poecilostomatoida) from the Red Sea and a redescription ofO. atlantica Shmeleva. J. Plankton Res. 9: 553–564Google Scholar
  16. Deevey, G. B., Brooks, A. L. (1971). The annual cycle in quantity and composition of the zooplankton of the Sargasso Sea off Bermuda. II. The surface to 2000 m. Limnol. Oceanogr. 16: 927–943Google Scholar
  17. Delalo, E. P. (1966). Distribution of the zooplankton biomass in the Red Sea and the Gulf of Aden, winter 1961/62. Okeanologicheskige issled. 15: 131–139 [in Russ.]Google Scholar
  18. Ferrari, F. D., Böttger, R. (1986). Sexual dimorphism and a sex-limited polymorphism inParoithona pacifica (Nishida, 1985) (Cyclopoida: Oithonidae) from the Red Sea. Proc. biol. Soc. Wash. 99: 274–285Google Scholar
  19. Ferrari, F. D., Bowman, T. E. (1980). Pelagic copepods of the family Oithonidae (Cyclopoida) from the east coasts of Central and South America. Smithson. Contr. Zool. 132: 1–27Google Scholar
  20. Gordeyeva, T. K. (1970). Quantitative distribution of zooplankton in the Red Sea. Okeanologija, Mosk. 10: 867–871Google Scholar
  21. Gorelova, T. A. (1974). Zooplankton from the stomachs of juvenile lantern fish of the family Myctophidae. Oceanology, Wash. 4: 575–580Google Scholar
  22. Halim, Y. (1969). Plankton of the Red Sea. Oceanogr. mar. biol. A. Rev. 7: 231–275Google Scholar
  23. Harder, W. (1968). Reactions of plankton organisms to water stratification. Limnol. Oceanogr. 13: 156–168Google Scholar
  24. Kimmerer, W. J. (1984). Selective predation and its impact on prey ofSagitta enflata (Chaetognatha). Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser. 15: 55–62Google Scholar
  25. Kršinić, F. (1988). Redescription of the female with a first description of the male ofOncaea zernovi Shmeleva (Copepoda: Poecilostomatoida). J. Plankton Res. 10: 543–553Google Scholar
  26. Lange, J., Falk, E., Zeitner, R. (1981). MESEDA 3-Data hydrography: water chemistry. Tech. Rep. No. 34G, Preussag Marine Technology Dept., Hannover, p. 1–45Google Scholar
  27. LeBrasseur, R. J., Kennedy, O. D. (1972). Microzooplankton in coastal and oceanic areas of the pacific subarctic water mass: a preliminary report. In: Takenouti, A. Y. (ed.) Biological oceanography of the North Pacific Ocean. Idemitsu shoten, Tokyo, p. 355–365Google Scholar
  28. Malt, S. J. (1983a). Studies on the taxonomy and ecology of the marine copepod genusOncaea Philippi. Ph.D. Thesis, University of LondonGoogle Scholar
  29. Malt, S. J. (1983b). Copepoda,Oncaea. Fich. Ident. Zooplancton 169/170/171: 1–11Google Scholar
  30. Marlowe, C. J., Miller, C. B. (1975). Patterns of vertical distribution and migration of zooplankton at Ocean Station “P”. Limnol. Oceanogr. 20: 824–844Google Scholar
  31. Nishida, S., Marumo, R. (1982). Vertical distribution of cyclopoid copepods of the family Oithonidae in the Western Pacific and Eastern Indian Ocean. Bull. Plankton Soc. Japan 29: 99–118Google Scholar
  32. Owre, H. B., Foyo, M. (1964). Report on a collection of Copepoda from the Caribbean Sea. Bull. mar. Sci. 14: 359–372Google Scholar
  33. Pugh, P. R., Boxshall, G. A. (1984). The small-scale distribution of plankton at a shelf station off the northwest African coast. Contin. Shelf Res. 3: 399–423Google Scholar
  34. Roe, H. S. J. (1984). The diel migrations and distributions within a mesopelagic community in the North East Atlantic. 4. The Copepods. Prog. Oceanogr. 13: 353–388Google Scholar
  35. Roman, M. R., Gauzens, A. L., Cowles, T. J. (1985). Temporal and spatial changes in epipelagic microzooplankton and mesozooplankton biomass in warm-core Gulf Stream ring 82-B. Deep-Sea Res. 32: 1007–1022Google Scholar
  36. Sameoto, D. D. (1986). Influence of the biological and physical environment on the vertical distribution of mesozooplankton and mikronekton in the eastern tropical Pacific. Mar. Biol. 93: 263–279Google Scholar
  37. Scotto di Carlo, B., Ianora, A., Fresi, E., Hure, J. (1984). Vertical zonation patterns for Mediterranean copepods from the surface to 3000 m at a fixed station in the Tyrrhenian Sea. J. Plankton Res. 6: 1031–1056Google Scholar
  38. Shmeleva, A. A. (1964). New Copepoda species in the Adriatic Sea and the characteristic features of their distribution. Okeanologija, Mosk. 6: 1066–1072 [in Russ.]Google Scholar
  39. Shmeleva, A. A. (1969). Espéces nouvelles du genreOncaea (Copepoda, Cyclopoida) de la mer Adriatique. Bull. Inst. oćeanogr. Monaco 68 (1393): 1–28Google Scholar
  40. Star, J. L., Mullin, M. M. (1981). Zooplankton assemblages in three areas of the North Pacific as revealed by continuous horizontal transects. Deep-Sea Res. 28 A: 1303–1322Google Scholar
  41. Steedman, H. F. (1976). Examination, sorting and observation fluids. In: Steedman, H. F. (ed.) Zooplankton fixation and preservation. Monographs on oceanographic methodology, Vol. 4. UNESCO Press, Paris, p. 182–183Google Scholar
  42. Sullivan, B. K. (1980). In situ feeding behaviour ofSagitta elegans andEukrohnia hamata (Chaetognatha) in relation to the vertical distribution and abundance of prey at Ocean Station “P”. Limnol. Oceanogr. 25: 317–326Google Scholar
  43. Terazaki, M., Wada, M. (1988). Occurrence of large numbers of carcasses of the large, grazing copepodCalanus cristatus from the Japan Sea. Mar. Biol. 97: 177–183Google Scholar
  44. Thiel, H., Weikert, H., Karbe, L. (1986). Risk assessment for mining metalliferous muds in the deep Red Sea. Ambio 15: 34–41Google Scholar
  45. Tsalkina, A. V. (1979a). Vertical distribution and diurnal migration of some Cyclopoida (Copepoda) in the tropical region of the Pacific Ocean. Mar. Biol. 5: 275–282Google Scholar
  46. Tsalkina, A. V. (1970b). The distribution of Copepoda Cyclopoida in the northern part of the Indian Ocean. The Cyclopoida biomass and the horizontal distribution of some species. Oceanology, Wash. 10: 388–397Google Scholar
  47. Tsalkina, A. V. (1972). Vertical distribution and diurnal migration of Cyclopoida (Copepoda) in the northeastern Indian Ocean. Okeanologija, Mosk. 12: 566–576Google Scholar
  48. Tsalkina, A. V. (1977). Vertical distribution and diurnal migrations of Cyclopoida (Copepoda) in the waters of the North Trade Winds Current and the Sulu Sea. Polskie Archm Hydrobiol. 24 (Suppl.): 337–362Google Scholar
  49. Turner, J. T. (1986). Zooplankton feeding ecology: Contents of fecal pellets of the cyclopoid copepodsOncaea venusta, Corycaeus amazonicus, Oithona plumifera, andO. simplex from the Northern Gulf of Mexico. Pubbl. Staz. zool. Napoli (I: Mar. Ecol.) 7: 289–302Google Scholar
  50. Weikert, H. (1977). Copepod carcasses in the upwelling region south of Cap Blanc, N.W. Africa. Mar. Biol. 42: 351–355Google Scholar
  51. Weikert, H. (1980a). On the plankton of the central Red Sea. A first synopsis of results obtained from the cruises MESEDA I and MESEDA II. Proceedings Symp. cstl. mar. envir. Red Sea, Gulf Aden and tropical western Indian Ocean. Khartoum, January 9–14, 1980. The Red Sea and Gulf of Aden Environmental programme, Jeddah, p. 135–167Google Scholar
  52. Weikert, H. (1980b). The oxygen minimum layer in the Red Sea: ecological implications of the zooplankton occurrence in the area of the Atlantis II Deep. Meeresforsch. Rep. mar. Res. 28: 1–9 (Ber. dt. wiss. Kommn. Meeresforsch.)Google Scholar
  53. Weikert, H. (1982). The vertical distribution of zooplankton in relation to habitat zones in the area of the Atlantis II Deep, central Red Sea. Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser. 8: 129–143Google Scholar
  54. Weikert, H. (1987). Plankton and the pelagic environment. In: Edwards, A. J., Head, S. M. (eds.) Red Sea. Key environments. Pergamon Press, Oxford, p. 90–111Google Scholar
  55. Weikert, H., John, H.-Ch. (1981). Experiences with a modified Bé multiple opening-closing plankton net. J. Plankton Res. 3: 167–176Google Scholar
  56. Wheeler, E. H. Jr. (1967). Copepod detritus in the deep sea. Limnol. Oceanogr. 12: 697–702Google Scholar
  57. Wishner, K. F. (1980). Aspects of the community ecology of deepsea, benthopelagic plankton, with special attention to gymnopleid copepods. Mar. Biol. 60: 179–187Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 1990

Authors and Affiliations

  • R. Böttger-Schnack
    • 1
  1. 1.Institut für Hydrobiologie und FischereiwissenschaftHamburg 50FRG

Personalised recommendations