Archives of Virology

, Volume 73, Issue 1, pp 1–13 | Cite as

Isolation of a coronavirus during studies on puffinosis, a disease of the Manx shearwater(Puffinus puffinus)

  • P. A. Nuttall
  • K. A. Harrap
Original Papers


A virus was isolated from 2 day-old mice inoculated with homogenates of either the lungs or blood of 2 different shearwaters affected by puffinosis. Examination of infected suckling mouse brain and infected NCTC-1469 (mouse liver) cell cultures, by electron microscopy, revealed virus particles and inclusion bodies characteristic of a coronavirus. Neutralization, complement fixation and fluorescent antibody tests showed that the virus was related to mouse hepatitis virus. The virus was not isolated from 445 control, uninfected mice. Neutralising antibodies were not detected in 39 sera from diseased shearwaters and 2 sera from apparently healthy birds. Two shearwaters inoculated with the virus did not develop clinical signs of infection. The question of whether the virus was isolated from shearwaters or from laboratory mice is discussed.


Hepatitis Infectious Disease Clinical Sign Mouse Brain Virus Particle 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    Bárdos, V., Schwanzer, V., Peško, J.: Identification of Tettnang virus (“possible arbovirus”) as mouse hepatitis virus. Intervirol.13, 275–283 (1980).Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Chong, K. T., Apostolov, K.: The pathogenesis of nephritis in chickens induced by infectious bronchitis virus. J. Comp. Path. (in press).Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Clarke, D. H., Casals, J.: Techniques for haemagglutination and haemagglutination-inhibition with arthropod-borne viruses. Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg.7, 516–573 (1958).Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Clarke, J. K., McFerran, J. B.: An electron microscopic study of haemagglutinating encephalomyelitis virus of pigs. J. gen. Virol.13, 339–344 (1971).Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Dane, D. S.: A disease of Manx shearwaters (Puffinus puffinus). J. Anim. Ecol.17, 158–164 (1948).Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Dane, D. S., Miles, J. A. R., Stoker, M. G. P.: A disease of Manx shearwaters: further observations in the field. J. Anim. Ecol.22, 123–133 (1953).Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    David-Ferreira, J. F., Manaker, R. A.: An electron microscope study of the development of a mouse hepatitis virus in tissue culture cells. J. Cell Biol.24, 57–78 (1965).Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Diamond, A. W.: Puffinosis among Manx shearwaters. Brit. Birds59, 82–84 (1966).Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Grist, N. R., Bell, E. J., Follett, E. A. C., Urquart, G. E. D.: Diagnostic methods in clinical virology. Oxford: Blackwell 1979.Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Hamre, D., Kindig, D. A., Mann, J.: Growth and intracellular development of a new respiratory virus. J. Virol.1, 810–816 (1967).Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Harris, M. P.: Puffinosis among Manx shearwaters on Skokholm. Brit. Birds58, 426–434 (1965).Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Hirai, K., Yagami, K., Shimakura, S., Hirano, N., Taguchi, F., Suzuki, Y.: Growth of infectious bronchitis virus in suckling mice brain. Res. Bull. Fac. Agr. Gifu Univ.39, 165–170 (1976).Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Koren, H. S., Handwerger, B. S., Wunderlich, J. R.: Identification of macro-phage-like characteristics in a cultured murine tumour line. J. Immunol.114, 894–897 (1975).Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Lennette, E. H., Schmidt, N. J.: Diagnostic procedures for viral, rickettsial, and chlamydial infections, ch. 26, 767–814. Washington D.C.: American Public Health Association, Inc. 1979.Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    McIntosh, K.: Coronaviruses: a comparative review. Curr. Top. Microbiol. Immunol.63, 85–129 (1974).Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Madrid, A. T. de, Porterfield, J. S.: A simple micro-culture method for the study of group B arboviruses. Bull. W.H.O.40, 113–121 (1969).Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Miles, J. A. R., Stoker, M. G. P.: Puffinosis, a virus epizootic of the Manx shearwater(Puffinus p. puffinus). Nature161, 1016–1017 (1948).Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Piazza, M.: Experimental viral hepatitis. Springfield, Ill.: Ch. C Thomas 1969.Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Rehse-Küpper, B., Danielová, V., Ackermann, R.: Isolierung eines für Mäuse pathogenen Virus ausIxodes ricinus (L.) in Nordrhein-Westfalen und in Oberschwaben. Zentrbl. Bakt., I. Abt. Orig.A244, 168–177 (1973).Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Robb, J. A., Bond, C. W.: Coronaviridae. In:Fraenkel-Conrat, H., Wagner, R. R. (eds.), Newly Characterized Vertebrate Viruses (Comprehensive Virology, Vol. 14), 193–247. New York-London: Plenum Press 1979.Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Stoker, M. G. P., Miles, J. A. R.: Studies on the causative agent of an epizootic amongst Manx shearwaters (Puffinus p. puffinus). J. Hyg.51, 195–202 (1953).Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Tyrrell, D. A. J., Almeida, J. D., Cunningham, C. H., Dowdle, W. R., Hofstad, M. S., McIntosh, K., Tajima, M., Zakstelskaya, L. Ya., Easterday, B. C., Kapikian, A., Bingham, R. W.: Coronaviridae. Intervirol.5, 76–82 (1975).Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 1982

Authors and Affiliations

  • P. A. Nuttall
    • 1
  • K. A. Harrap
    • 1
  1. 1.NERC Institute of VirologyOxfordUnited Kingdom

Personalised recommendations