Archives of Virology

, Volume 65, Issue 1, pp 55–62 | Cite as

Transplacental infection and embryonic death following maternal exposure to porcine parvovirus near the time of conception

  • W. L. Mengeling
  • P. S. Paul
  • T. T. Brown
Original Papers


Each of 20 gilts (principals) from a commercial swine herd free of antibody for porcine parvovirus (PPV) was exposed intranasally and orally to PPV at the onset of gestation. The gilts were killed and necropsied 22±1 days later to determine the effect of the virus on their embryos. An equal number of gilts (controls) of the same status, from the same herd, and bred to the same boars, were treated similarly except for exposure to PPV.

The following data were obtained at necropsy and from subsequent laboratory tests. Principals had 223 corpora lutea (8 to 16/gilt) and 203 embryos (6 to 16/litter). Porcine parvovirus-infected embryos (1 to 9/litter) were detected in 12 (60 per cent) of the 20 litters. Of the 203 embryos of principals, 169 were alive and 34 were dead and in various stages of decomposition and resorption. Both virus and viral antigen were detected in 7 of the live embryos (1, 1, 2, and 3 in 4 litters) and in 32 of the dead embryos. With 1 exception, infected live embryos were next to infected dead littermates in the uterus suggesting the beginning of intrauterine spread of the virus. Controls had 234 corpora lutea (9 to 15/gilt) and 217 embryos (9 to 14/litter). None of their embryos were infected with PPV and all but 3 were alive.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    Anderson, L. L.: Growth, protein content and distribution of early porcine embryos. Anat. Rec.190, 143–153 (1978).Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Bachmann, P. A., Sheffy, B. E., Vaughan, J. T.: Experimentalin utero infection in fetal pigs with a porcine parvovirus. Infect. Immun.12, 455–460 (1975).Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Cartwright, Shella F., Huck, R. A.: Viruses isolated in association with herd infertility, abortions and stillbirths in pigs. Vet. Rec.81, 196–197 (1967).Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Cartwright, Sheila F., Lucas, Margaret, Huck, R. A.: A small haemaaglutinating porcine DNA virus. II. Biological and serological studies. J. comp. Pathol.81, 145–155 (1971).Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Cropper, M., Dunne, H. W., Leman, A. D., Starkey, A. L., Hoefling, D. C.: Prevalence of antibodies to porcine enteroviruses and porcine parvovirus in body fluids of fetal pigs from small vs large litters. J. Amer. vet. med. Ass.168, 233–235 (1976).Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Cutlip, R. C., Mengeling, W. L.: Pathogenesis ofin utero infection of eight- and ten-week-old porcine fetuses with porcine parvovirus. Amer. J. vet. Res.36, 1751–1754 (1975).Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Donaldson-Wood, C. R., Joo, H. S., Johnson, R. H.: The effect on reproductive performance of porcine parvovirus infection in a susceptible pig herd. Vet. Rec.100, 237–239 (1977).Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Forman, A. J., Lenghaus, C., Hogg, G. G., Hale, C. J.: Association of a parvovirus with an outbreak of foetal death and mummification in pigs. Aust. vet. J.53, 326–329 (1977).Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Gillick, J. C.: An outbreak of swine foetal mummification associated with porcine parvovirus. Aust. vet. J.53, 105–106 (1977).Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Hogg, G. G., Lenghaus, C., Forman, A. J.: Experimental porcine parvovirus infection of fetal pigs resulting in abortion, histologic lesions, and antibody formation. J. comp. Pathol.87, 539–549 (1977).Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Joo, H. S., Donaldson-Wood, C. R., Johnson, R. H.: Observations on the pathogenesis of porcine parvovirus infection. Arch. Virol.51, 123–129 (1976).Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Lenghaus, C., Forman, A. J., Hale, C. J.: Experimental infection of 35, 50, and 60-day-old pig fetuses with porcine parvovirus. Aust. vet. J.54, 418–422 (1978).Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Lucas, Margaret H., Cartwright, Sheila F., Wrathall, A. E.: Genital infection of pigs with porcine parvovirus. J. comp. Pathol.84, 347–350 (1974).Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Mengeling, W. L., Cutlip, R. C.: Pathogenesis ofin utero infection: Experimenta infection of five-week-old porcine fetuses with porcine parvovirus. Amer. J. vet. Res.36, 1173–1177 (1975).Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Mengeling, W. L., Cutlip, R. C., Wilson, R. A., Parks, J. B., Marshall, R. F.: Fetal mummification associated with porcine parvovirus infection. J. Amer. vet. Ass.166, 993–995 (1975).Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Mengeling, W. L., Cutlip, R. C.: Reproductive disease experimentally induced by exposing pregnant gilts to porcine parvovirus. Amer. J. vet. Res.37, 1393–1400 (1976).Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Mengeling, W. L.: Prevalence of porcine parvovirus-induced reproductive failure: An abattoir study. J. Amer. vet. Med. Ass.172, 1291–1294 (1978).Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Mengeling, W. L., Cutlip, R. C., Barnett, D.: Porcine parvovirus: Pathogenesis, prevalence and prophylaxis. Proc. Int. Pig Vet. Soc., Zagreb, Yugoslavia, June 1978.Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Mengeling, W. L., Brown, T. T., Paul, P. S., Gutekunst, D. E.: Efficacy of an inactivated virus vaccine for prevention of porcine parvovirus-induced reproductive failure. Amer. J. vet. Res.40, 204–207 (1979).Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Mengelling, W. L.: Prenatal infection following maternal exposure to porcine parvovirus on either the seventh or fourteenth day of gestation. Canad. J. comp. Med.43, 106–109 (1979).Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Morimoto, T., Kurogi, H., Miura, Y., Sugimori, T., Fujisaki, Y.: Isolation of Japanese encephalitis virus and a hemagglutinating DNA virus from the brain of stillborn piglets. Natn. Inst. Anim. Hlth Qt., Tokyo12, 127–136 (1972).Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Narita, M. S., Inui, Kawakami, Y., Kitamura, K., Maeda, A.: Histopathological changes of the brain in swine fetuses naturally infected with porcine parvovirus. Bull. Natn. Inst. Anim. Hlth15, 24–28 (1975).Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Rodeffer, H. E., Leman, A. D., Dunne, H. W., Cropper, M., Sprecher, D. J.: Reproductive failure in swine associated with maternal seroconversion for porcine parvovirus. J. Amer. vet. Med. Ass.166, 991–992 (1975).Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Scofield, A. M.: Embryonic mortality. In:Cole, D. J. A. (ed.), Pig production (Proc. of the Eighteenth Easter School in Agricultural Science, University of Nottingham 1971), 367–383. London: Butterworths 1972.Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Wrathall, A. E., Mengeling, W. L.: Effect of porcine parvovirus on development of fertilized pig eggsin vitro. Brit. vet. J.135, 249–253 (1979).Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    Wrathall, A. E., Mengeling, W. L.: Effect of transferring parvovirus infected fertilized pig eggs into seronegative gilts. Brit. vet. J.135, 255–261 (1979).Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 1980

Authors and Affiliations

  • W. L. Mengeling
    • 1
  • P. S. Paul
    • 1
  • T. T. Brown
    • 1
  1. 1.Virological Research Laboratory, National Animal Disease Center, Agricultural Research, Science and Education AdministrationU.S. Department of AgricultureAmesUSA

Personalised recommendations