Advertisement

Journal of Archaeological Research

, Volume 1, Issue 1, pp 67–88 | Cite as

Hunter-gatherer cultural dynamics: Long- and short-term trends in Australian prehistory

  • Harry Lourandos
Article

Abstract

Recent evidence indicates that a wide range of environmental sectors of Greater Australia had been peopled between ca. 30,000 and ca. 40,000 B.P. Differences in regional Pleistocene patterns of settlement, subsistence, and demography are becoming increasingly evident—such as those between central arid Australia and sub-Antarctic Tasmania. It now remains to model and explain the extremely long-term Pleistocene cultural sequences (spanning tens of thousands of years), in contrast to the more short-term cultural sequences that characterize, for example, the mid-late Holocene period of mainland Australia. While explanations remain unresolved, the latter period indicates the widest range of regional sociocultural and demographic changes.

Key words

hunter-gatherer Australian prehistory Pleistocene Holocene cultural dynamics 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References cited

  1. Allen, J. (1989). Excavation at Bone Cave, south central Tasmania, January–February 1989.Australian Archaeology 28 105–106.Google Scholar
  2. Allen, J., Gosden, C., Jones, R., and White, J. P. (1988). Pleistocene dates for the human occupation of New Ireland, northern Melanesia.Nature 331 707–709.Google Scholar
  3. Anderson, I. (1991). First Australians headed south in haste.New Scientist 23 3.Google Scholar
  4. Balme, J., and Hope, J. (1990). Radiocarbon dates from midden sites in the lower Darling River area of western New South Wales.Archaeology in Oceania 25 85–101.Google Scholar
  5. Barker, B. C. (1987).A Faunal Analysis from Narcurrer Shelter, South-East South Australia, Unpublished B.A. (honors) thesis, Department of Anthropology and Sociology, University of Queensland, Brisbane.Google Scholar
  6. Barker, B. C. (1989). Nara Inlet 1: A Holocene sequence from the Whitsunday Islands, central Queensland coast.Queensland Archaeological Research 6 53–76.Google Scholar
  7. Barker, B. C. (1991). Nara Inlet 1: Coastal resource use and the Holocene marine transgression in the Whitsunday Islands, Central Queensland.Archaeology in Oceania 26 102–109.Google Scholar
  8. Beaton, J. M. (1985). Evidence for a coastal occupation time-lag at Princess Charlotte Bay (North Queensland) and implications for coastal colonization and population growth theories for Aboriginal Australia.Archaeology in Oceania 20 1–20.Google Scholar
  9. Beaton, J. M. (1990). The importance of past population for prehistory. In Meehan, B., and White, N. (eds.),Hunter-Gatherer Demography: Past and Present, Oceania Monograph 39, University of Sydney, Sydney, pp. 23–40.Google Scholar
  10. Bender, B. (1981). Gatherer-hunter intensification. In Sheridan, A., and Bailey, G. (eds.),Economic Archaeology, British Archaeological Reports, International Series 96, Oxford, pp. 149–157.Google Scholar
  11. Bender, B. (1985). Prehistoric developments in the American midcontinent and in Brittany, northwest France. In Price, T. D., and Brown, J. A. (eds.),Prehistoric Hunter-Gatherers: The Emergence of Cultural Complexity, Academic Press, Orlando, Fla., pp. 21–57.Google Scholar
  12. Bird, C. F. M., and Frankel, D. (1991). Chronology and explanation in western Victoria and south-east South Australia.Archaeology in Oceania 26 1–16.Google Scholar
  13. Birdsell, J. B. (1953). Some environmental and cultural factors influencing the structuring of Australian Aboriginal populations.American Naturalist 87 171–207.Google Scholar
  14. Birdsell, J. B. (1977). The recalibration of a paradigm for the first peopling of Australia. In Allen, J., Golson, J., and Jones, R. (eds.),Sunda and Sahul, Academic Press, London, pp. 113–167.Google Scholar
  15. Blackwell, A. (1982). Bowen Island: Further evidence for economic change and intensification on the south coast of New South Wales. In Bowdler, S. (ed.),Coastal Archaeology in Eastern Australia, Australian National University, Canberra, pp. 46–51.Google Scholar
  16. Bowdler, S. (1977). The coastal colonization of Australia. In Allen, J., Golson, J., and Jones, R. (eds.),Sunda and Sahul, Academic Press, London, pp. 205–246.Google Scholar
  17. Bowdler, S. (1990). 50,000 year-old-site in Australia—is it really that old?Australian Archaeology 31 93.Google Scholar
  18. Bowdler, S. (1991). Some sort of dates at Malakunanja II: A reply to Robertset al. Australian Archaeology 32 50–51.Google Scholar
  19. Bowler, J. M. (1976). Recent developments in reconstructing late Quaternary environments in Australia. In Kirk, R. L., and Thorne, A. G. (eds.),The Origin of the Australians, Australian Institute of Aboriginal Studies, Canberra, pp. 55–77.Google Scholar
  20. Brown, J. A. (1985). Long-term trends to sedentism and the emergence of complexity in the American midwest. In Price, T. D., and Brown, J. A. (eds.),Prehistoric Hunter-Gatherers: The Emergence of Cultural Complexity, Academic Press, Orlando, Fla., pp. 201–231.Google Scholar
  21. Brown, P. (1987). Pleistocene homogeneity and Holocene size reduction: The Australian human skeletal evidence.Archaeology in Oceania 22: 41–67.Google Scholar
  22. Brown, P. (1989).Coobool Creek. A Morphological and Metrical Analysis of the Crania, Mandibles and Dentitions of a Prehistoric Australian Human Population, Australian National University Press, Terra Australis 13, Canberra.Google Scholar
  23. Brown, S., Kee, S., McGowan, A., Middleton, G., Nash, M., Prince, B., Ricketts, N., and West, D. (1991). A preliminary survey for Aboriginal sites in the Denison River Valley, March 1989.Australian Archaeology 32 26–37.Google Scholar
  24. Campbell, J. B. (1982). Automatic sea-food retrieval systems: Evidence from Hinchinbrook Island and its implications. In Bowdler, S. (ed.),Coastal Archaeology in Eastern Australia, Australian National University, Canberra, pp. 96–107.Google Scholar
  25. Chappell, J. M. A. (1982). Sea levels and sediments: Some features of the context of coastal archaeological sites in the tropics.Archaeology in Oceania 17 69–78.Google Scholar
  26. Chappell, J., and Thom, B. G. (1977). Sea levels and coasts. In Allen, J., Golson, J., and Jones, R. (eds.),Sunda and Sahul, Academic Press, London, pp. 275–291.Google Scholar
  27. Cosgrove, R. (1989). Thirty thousand years of human colonization in Tasmania: New Pleistocene dates.Science 243 1703–1705.Google Scholar
  28. Cosgrove, R., Allen, J., and Marshall, B. (1990). Palaeo-ecology and Pleistocene human occupation in south central Tasmania.Antiquity 64 59–78.Google Scholar
  29. Cowgill, G. L. (1975). On causes and consequences of ancient and modern population changes.American Anthropologist 77 505–525.Google Scholar
  30. David, B. (1991). Fern Cave, rock art and social formations: Rock art regionalization and demographic models in southeastern Cape York Peninsula.Archaeology in Oceania 26 41–57.Google Scholar
  31. David, B. (1993). Preliminary results from Nurrabullgin Cave: A pre-37000 year old rockshelter from north Queensland.Archaeology in Oceania (in press).Google Scholar
  32. David, B., and Cole, N. (1990). Rock art and inter-regional interaction in northeast Australian prehistory.Antiquity 64 788–806.Google Scholar
  33. Davidson, I. (1990). Prehistoric Australian demography. In Meehan, B., and White, N. (eds.),Hunter-Gatherer Demography: Past and Present, Oceania Monograph 39, University of Sydney, Sydney, pp. 41–58.Google Scholar
  34. Flannery, T. F. (1990). Pleistocene faunal loss: Implications of the aftershock for Australia's past and future.Archaeology in Oceania 25 45–67.Google Scholar
  35. Flood, J., David, B., Magee, J., and English, B. (1987). Birrigai: A Pleistocene site in the south-eastern highlands.Archaeology in Oceania 22 9–26.Google Scholar
  36. Gamble, C. (1986a).The Palaeolithic Settlement of Europe, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.Google Scholar
  37. Gamble, C. (1986b). The mesolithic sandwich: Ecological approaches and the archaeological record of the early postglacial. In Zvelebil, M. (ed.),Hunters in Transition: Mesolithic Societies of Temperate Eurasia and Their Transition to Farming, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, pp. 33–42.Google Scholar
  38. Gillespie, R., Horton, D. R., Ladd, P., Macumber, P. G., Rich, T. H., Thorne, A., and Wright, R. V. S. (1978). Lancefield Swamp and the extinction of the Australian megafauna.Science 200 1043–1044.Google Scholar
  39. Godwin, L. (1980).What You Can Do with 27,000 Pieces of Bone: A Taphonomic Study of Vertebrate Fauna from the Bridgewater Caves South, Unpublished B.A. thesis, University of New England, New South Wales.Google Scholar
  40. Gorecki, P. P., Horton, D. R., Stern, N., and Wright, R. V. S. (1984). Coexistence of humans and megafauna in Australia: Improved stratigraphic evidence.Archaeology in Oceania 19 117–119.Google Scholar
  41. Gorecki, P., Mabin, M., and Campbell, J. (1991). Archaeology and geomorphology of the Vanimo coast, Papua New Guinea: Preliminary results.Archaeology in Oceania 26 119–122.Google Scholar
  42. Gould, R. A. (1977). Puntutjarpa rockshelter and the Australian Desert culture.Anthropological Papers of the American Museum of Natural History 54(1).Google Scholar
  43. Groube, L., Chappell, J., Muke, J., and Price, D. (1986). 40,000 year old human occupation site at Huon Peninsula, Papua, New Guinea.Nature 324 453–455.Google Scholar
  44. Habgood, P. J. (1986). The origin of the Australians: A multivariate approach.Archaeology in Oceania 21 130–137.Google Scholar
  45. Hall, J., and Hiscock, P. (1988). The Moreton Region Archaeological Project (MRAP)—Stage II: An outline of objectives and methods.Queensland Archaeological Research 5 4–24.Google Scholar
  46. Head, L. (1989). Using palaeoecology to date Aboriginal fishtraps at Lake Condah, Victoria.Archaeology in Oceania 24 110–115.Google Scholar
  47. Hiscock, P. (1984). Preliminary report on the stone artefacts from Colless Creek Cave, Northwest Queensland.Queensland Archaeological Research 1 120–151.Google Scholar
  48. Hiscock, P. (1990). How old are the artefacts at Malakunanja II?Archaeology in Oceania 25 122–124.Google Scholar
  49. Hope, J. H., Dare-Edwards, A., and McIntyre, M. L. (1983). Middens and megafauna: Stratigraphy and dating of Lake Tandou Lunette, western New South Wales.Archaeology in Oceania 18 45–53.Google Scholar
  50. Horton, D. R. (1980). A review of the extinction question: Man, climate and megafauna.Archaeology and Physical Anthropology in Oceania 15 86–97.Google Scholar
  51. Hughes, P. J., and Lampert, R. J. (1980). Pleistocene occupation of the arid zone in southeast Australia: Research prospects for the Cooper Creek-Strzlecki Desert region.Australian Archaeology 10 52–67.Google Scholar
  52. Hughes, P. J., and Lampert, R. J. (1982). Prehistoric population change in southern coastal New South Wales. In Bowdler, S. (ed.),Coastal Archaeology in Eastern Australia, Australian National University, Canberra, pp. 16–28.Google Scholar
  53. Jones, R. (1984). Hunters and history: A case study from western Tasmania. In Schrire, C. (ed.),Past and Present in Hunter Gatherer Studies, Academic Press, London, pp. 27–65.Google Scholar
  54. Jones, R., Cosgrove, R., Allen, J., Cane, S., Kiernan, K., Webb, S., Loy, T., West, D., and Stadler, E. (1988). An archaeological reconnaissance of karst caves within the Southern Forests region of Tasmania, September 1987.Australian Archaeology 26 1–23.Google Scholar
  55. Kiernan, K., Jones, R., and Ranson, D. (1983). New evidence from Fraser Cave for glacial age man in southwest Tasmania.Nature 301 28–32.Google Scholar
  56. Lampert, R. J., and Hughes, P. J. (1980). Pleistocene archaeology in the Flinders range: Research prospects.Australian Archaeology 10 11–20.Google Scholar
  57. Lourandos, H. (1977). Aboriginal spatial organization and population: South-western Victoria re-considered.Archaeology and Physical Anthropology in Oceania 12 202–225.Google Scholar
  58. Lourandos, H. (1980a).Forces of Change: Aboriginal Technology and Population in Southwestern Victoria, Unpublished Ph.D. thesis, Department of Anthropology, University of Sydney, Sydney.Google Scholar
  59. Lourandos, H. (1980b). Change or stability? Hydraulics, hunter-gatherers and population in temperate Australia.World Archaeology 11 245–266.Google Scholar
  60. Lourandos, H. (1983). Intensification: A late Pleistocene-Holocene archaeological sequence from southwestern Victoria.Archaeology in Oceania 18 81–94.Google Scholar
  61. Lourandos, H. (1984). Changing perspectives in Australian prehistory: A reply to Beaton,Archaeology in Oceania 19 29–33.Google Scholar
  62. Lourandos, H. (1985a). Intensification and Australian prehistory. In Price, T. D., and Brown, J. A. (eds.),Prehistoric Hunter-Gatherers: The Emergence of Cultural Complexity, Academic Press, Orlando, Fla., pp. 385–423.Google Scholar
  63. Lourandos, H. (1985b). Problems with the interpretation of late Holocene changes in Australian prehistory.Archaeology in Oceania 20 37–39.Google Scholar
  64. Lourandos, H. (1987). Pleistocene Australia: Peopling a continent. In Soffer, O. (ed.),The Pleistocene Old World: Regional Perspectives, Plenum, New York, pp. 147–165.Google Scholar
  65. Lourandos, H. (1988). Palaeopolitics: Resource intensification in Aboriginal Australia and Papua New Guinea. In Ingold, T., Riches, D., and Woodburn, J. (eds.),Hunters and Gatherers: History, Evolution and Social Change, Berg, Oxford, pp. 148–160.Google Scholar
  66. Lourandos, H. (1993). Australian Holocene changes: Long- and short-term trends.Archaeology in Oceania (in press).Google Scholar
  67. Lourandos, H., and Barker, B. (1993). Sea levels, productivity and prehistory: Pleistocene-Holocene coastal use in Australia (in press).Google Scholar
  68. Loy, T. H., Jones, R., Nelson, D. E., Meehan, B., Vogel, J., Southon, J., and Cosgrove, R. (1990). Accelerator radiocarbon dating of human blood proteins in pigments from Late Pleistocene art sites in Australia.Antiquity 64 110–116.Google Scholar
  69. Luebbers, R. A. (1978).Meals and Menus: A Study of Change in Prehistoric Settlements in South Australia, Unpublished Ph.D. thesis, Department of Prehistory, Australian National University, Canberra.Google Scholar
  70. Martin, P. S., and Klein, R. G. (1984).Quaternary Extinctions. A Prehistoric Revolution, University of Arizona Press, Tucson.Google Scholar
  71. Maynard, L. (1980). A Pleistocene date from an occupation deposit in the Pilbara region, Western Australia.Australian Archaeology 10 3–8.Google Scholar
  72. McBryde, I. (1984). Kulin greenstone quarries: The social contexts of production and distribution for the Mt William site.World Archaeology 16 267–285.Google Scholar
  73. McNiven, I. (1991). Teewah Beach: New evidence for Holocene coastal occupation in southeast Queensland.Australian Archaeology 33 14–27.Google Scholar
  74. Mitchell, S. (1988).Chronological Change in Intensity of Site Use at Seal Point: A Technological Analysis, Unpublished B.A. (Honors) thesis, Department of Anthropology and Sociology, University of Queensland, Brisbane.Google Scholar
  75. Morse, K. M. (1988). Mandu Mandu Creek rockshelter: Pleistocene human coastal occupation of North West Cape, Western Australia.Archaeology in Oceania 23 81–88.Google Scholar
  76. Morwood, M. J. (1987). The archaeology of social complexity in South-east Queensland.Proceedings of the Prehistoric Society 53 337–350.Google Scholar
  77. Morwood, M. (1989). The archaeology of Aboriginal art in S.E. Cape York: Preliminary report on the 1989 fieldwork.Rock Art Research 6: 155–156.Google Scholar
  78. Murray, P. F., Goede, A., and Bada, J. L. (1980). Pleistocene human occupation at Beginners Luck Cave, Florentine Valley, Tasmania.Archaeology and Physical Anthropology in Oceania 15 142–152.Google Scholar
  79. Nanson, G. C., Young, R. W., and Stockton, E. D. (1987). Chronology and palaeoenvironment of the Cranebrook Terrace (near Sydney) containing artefacts more than 40,000 years old.Archaeology in Oceania 22 72–78.Google Scholar
  80. O'Connor, S. (1987). The stone house structures of High Cliffy Island, north west Kimberley, W.A.Australian Archaeology 25 30–39.Google Scholar
  81. O'Connor, S. (1989). New radiocarbon dates from Koolan Island, West Kimberley, W.A.Australian Archaeology 28 92–104.Google Scholar
  82. Pardoe, C. (1988). The cemetery as symbol. The distribution of prehistoric Aboriginal burial grounds in southeastern Australia.Archaeology in Oceania 23 1–16.Google Scholar
  83. Pardoe, C. (1990). The demographic basis of human evolution in southeastern Australia. In Meehan, B., and White, N. (eds.),Hunter-Gatherer Demography: Past and Present, Oceania Monograph 39, University of Sydney, Sydney, pp. 59–70.Google Scholar
  84. Pearce, R. H., and Barbetti, M. (1981). A 38,000-year-old archaeological site at Upper Swan, Western Australia.Archaeology in Oceania 16 173–178.Google Scholar
  85. Price, T. D. (1985). Affluent foragers of Mesolithic southern Scandinavia. In Price, T. D., and Brown, J. A. (eds.),Prehistoric Hunter-Gatherers: The Emergence of Cultural Complexity, Academic Press, New York, pp. 341–363.Google Scholar
  86. Price, T. D., and Brown, J. A. (1985).Prehistoric Hunter-Gatherers: The Emergence of Cultural Complexity, Academic Press, Orlando, Fla.Google Scholar
  87. Roberts, R. G., Jones, R., and Smith, M. (1990a). Thermoluminescence dating of a 50,000-year-old human occupation site in northern Australia.Nature 345 153–156.Google Scholar
  88. Roberts, R. G., Jones, R., and Smith, M. (1990b). Early dates at Malakunanja II: A reply to Bowdler.Australian Archaeology 31 94–97.Google Scholar
  89. Roberts, R. G., Jones, R., and Smith, M. (1990c). Stratigraphy and statistics at Malakunanja II: A reply to Hiscock.Archaeology in Oceania 25 125–129.Google Scholar
  90. Ross, A. (1985). Archaeological evidence for population change in the middle to late Holocene in southeastern Australia.Archaeology in Oceania 20 81–89.Google Scholar
  91. Ross, A., Donnelly, T., and Wasson, R. (1992). The peopling of the arid zone: Human-environment interactions. In Dodson, J. (ed.),The Naive Lands, Longman Cheshire, Melbourne, pp. 76–114.Google Scholar
  92. Rowland, M. J. (1982). Further radiocarbon dates from the Keppel Islands.Australian Archaeology 15 43–48.Google Scholar
  93. Rowland, M. J. (1989). Population increase, intensification or a result of preservation? Explaining site distribution patterns on the coast of Queensland.Australian Aboriginal Studies 2 32–42.Google Scholar
  94. Smith, M. A. (1986). The antiquity of seed grinding in central Australia.Archaeology in Oceania 21 29–39.Google Scholar
  95. Smith, M. A. (1989a). Seed gathering in inland Australia: Current evidence from seed-grinders on the antiquity of the ethnohistorical pattern of exploitation. In Harris, D. R., and Hillman, G. C. (eds.),Foraging and Farming: The Evolution of Plant Domestication, Unwin Hyman, London, pp. 305–317.Google Scholar
  96. Smith, M. A. (1989b). The case for a resident human population in the Central Australian Ranges during full glacial aridity.Archaeology in Oceania 24 93–105.Google Scholar
  97. Soffer, O. (1985). Patterns of intensification as seen from the Upper Paleolithic of the Central Russian Plain. In Price, T. D., and Brown, J. A. (eds.),Prehistoric Hunter-Gatherers: The Emergence of Cultural Complexity, Academic Press, Orlando, Fla., pp. 235–270.Google Scholar
  98. Sullivan, M. (1982). Exploitation of offshore islands along the New South Wales coastline.Australian Archaeology 15 8–19.Google Scholar
  99. Thorne, A. G. (1977). Separation or reconciliation? Biological clues to the development of Australian society. In Allen, J., Golson, J., and Jones, R. (eds.),Sunda and Sahul, Academic Press, London, pp. 187–204.Google Scholar
  100. Thorne, A. G., and Wolpoff, M. H. (1981). Regional continuity in Australasian Pleistocene hominid evolution.American Journal of Physical Anthropology 55 337–349.Google Scholar
  101. Veth, P. M. (1987). Martujarra prehistory: Variation in arid zone adaptations.Australian Archaeology 25 102–111.Google Scholar
  102. Veth, P. (1989). Islands of the interior: A model for the colonization of Australia's arid zone.Archaeology in Oceania 24 81–92.Google Scholar
  103. Walters, I. (1989). Intensified fishery production at Moreton Bay, southeast Queensland, in the late Holocene.Antiquity 63 215–224.Google Scholar
  104. Webb, S. G. (1987). A palaeodemographic model of late Holocene Central Murray Aboriginal society, Australia.Human Evolution 2 385–406.Google Scholar
  105. Webb, S. G. (1989).The Willandra Lakes Hominids, Department of Prehistory, Research School of Pacific Studies, Australian National University, Canberra.Google Scholar
  106. Williams, E. (1987). Complex hunter-gatherers: A view from Australia.Antiquity 61 310–321.Google Scholar
  107. Williams, E. (1988).Complex Hunter-Gatherers: A Late Holocene Example from Temperate Australia, British Archaeological Reports, International Series 423, Oxford.Google Scholar
  108. Wobst, H. M. (1976). Locational relationships in palaeolithic society.Journal of Human Evolution 5 49–58.Google Scholar
  109. Yoffee, N. (1985). Perspectives on “trends towards social complexity in prehistoric Australia and Papua New Guinea.”Archaeology in Oceania 20 41–49.Google Scholar
  110. Zvelebil, M. (1986).Hunters in Transition: Mesolithic Societies of Temperate Eurasia and Their Transition to Farming, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.Google Scholar

Bibliography of recent literature

  1. Allen, H., and Barton, G. (1989).Ngarradj Warde Djobkeng: White Cockatoo Dreaming and the Prehistory of Kakadu, Oceania Monograph 37, University of Sydney, Sydney.Google Scholar
  2. Allen, J. (1989). When did humans first colonise Australia?Search 20 149–154.Google Scholar
  3. Allen, J., Gosden, C., and White, J. P. (1989). Human Pleistocene adaptations in the tropical island Pacific: Recent evidence from New Ireland, a greater Australian outlier.Antiquity 63 548–561.Google Scholar
  4. Abrose, W. R., and Mummery, J. M. C. (1987).Archaeometry, Further Australasian Studies, Department of Prehistory, Research School of Pacific Studies, Australian National University, Canberra.Google Scholar
  5. Attenbrow, V. (1987).The Upper Mangrove Creek Catchment: A Study of Quantitative Changes in the Archaeological Record, Unpublished Ph.D. thesis, Department of Anthropology, University of Sydney, Sydney.Google Scholar
  6. Beck, W., Clarke, A., and Head, L. (1989).Plants in Australian Archaeology, Tempus 1, Anthropology Museum, University of Queensland, Brisbane.Google Scholar
  7. Bowdler, S. (1990). The Silver Dollar site, Shark Bay: An interim report.Australian Aboriginal Studies 2 60–63.Google Scholar
  8. Bowdler, S. (1990). Peopling Australasia: The “coastal colonisation” hypothesis reconsidered. In Mellars, P., and Stringer, C. (eds.),The Human Revolution: Behavioural and Biological Perspectives on the Origins of Modern Humans, Vol. 2, University of Edinburgh Press, Edinburgh, pp. 327–343.Google Scholar
  9. Brown, S. (1987).Toward a Prehistory of the Hammersley Plateau, Northwest Australia, Occasional Papers No. 6, Department of Prehistory, Research School of Pacific Studies, Australian National University, Canberra.Google Scholar
  10. Cane, S. (1987). Australian Aboriginal subsistence in the Western Desert.Human Ecology 15 391–434.Google Scholar
  11. Chappell, J. (1988). Geomorphologic dynamics and evolution of tidal river and floodplain systems in northern Australia. In Wade-Marshall, D., and Loveday, P. (eds.),Floodplains Research 2, North Australian Research Unit, Australian National University, Canberra, pp. 34–57.Google Scholar
  12. Chase, A. K. (1989). Domestication and domiculture in northern Australia: A social perspective. In Harris, D. R., and Hillman, G. C. (eds.),Foraging and Farming: The Evolution of Plant Domestication, Unwin Hyman, London, pp. 42–54.Google Scholar
  13. Colley, S. M., and Jones R. (1987). New fish bone data from Rocky Cape, north west Tasmania.Archaeology in Oceania 22 67–71.Google Scholar
  14. Cribb, R., and Minnegal, M. (1989). Spatial analysis on a dugong consumption site at Princess Charlotte Bay, North Queensland.Archaeology in Oceania 24 1–12.Google Scholar
  15. David, B. (1987).Chillagoe: From Archaeology to Prehistory: Contributions to a Late Holocene Prehistory of the Chillagoe Region, North Queensland, Unpublished M.A. thesis, Department of Prehistory and Anthropology, Australian National University, Canberra.Google Scholar
  16. David, B., McNiven, I., Flood, J., and Frost, R. (1990). Yiwarlarlay 1: Archaeological excavations at the Lightning Brothers site, Delamere station, Northern Territory.Archaeology in Oceania 25 79–84.Google Scholar
  17. Dodson, J. (1992).The Naive Lands: Prehistory and Environmental Change in Australia and the South-West Pacific, Longman Cheshire, Melbourne.Google Scholar
  18. Dodson, J., Fullagar, R., and Head, L. (1992). Dynamics of environment and people in the forested crescents of temperate Australia. In Dodson, J. (ed.),The Naive Lands, Longman Cheshire, Melbourne, pp. 115–159.Google Scholar
  19. Draper, N. (1987). Context for the Kartan: A preliminary report of excavations at Cape du Couedic rockshelter, Kangaroo Island.Archaeology in Oceania 22 1–8.Google Scholar
  20. Flood, J. (1989).Archaeology of the Dreamtime: The Story of Prehistoric Australia and Its People, Collins, Sydney.Google Scholar
  21. Flood, J. (1990).The Riches of Ancient Australia: A Journal into Prehistory, University of Queensland Press, Brisbane.Google Scholar
  22. Hallam, S. J. (1989). Plant usage and management in southwest Australian Aboriginal societies. In Harris, D. R., and Hillman, G. C. (eds.),Foraging and Farming: The Evolution of Plant Domestication, Unwin Hyman, London, pp. 136–150.Google Scholar
  23. Hiscock, P. (1988).Prehistoric Settlement Patterns and Artefact Manufacture at Lawn Hill, North-West Queensland, Unpublished Ph.D. thesis, Department of Anthropology and Sociology, University of Queensland, Brisbane.Google Scholar
  24. Hiscock, P., and Kershaw, A. P. (1992). Palaeoenvironments and prehistory of Australia's tropical Top End. In Dodson, J. (ed.),The Naive Lands, Longman Cheshire, Melbourne, pp. 43–75.Google Scholar
  25. Horsfall, N. (1987).Living in Rainforest: The Prehistoric Occupation of North Queensland's Humid Tropics, Unpublished Ph.D. thesis, Department of Behavioural Science, James Cook University of North Queensland.Google Scholar
  26. Jones, R. (1987). Pleistocene life in the dead heart of Australia.Nature 328 666.Google Scholar
  27. Jones, R. (1990). East of Wallace's line: Issues and problems in the colonisation of the Australian continent. In Mellars, P., and Stringer, C. (eds.),The Human Revolution: Behavioural and Biological Perspectives on the Origins of Modern Humans, Vol. 2, University of Edinburgh Press, Edinburgh, pp. 743–782.Google Scholar
  28. Jones, R., and Meehan, B. (1989). Plant foods of the Gidjingali: Ethnographic and archaeological perspectives from northern Australia on tuber and seed exploitation. In Harris, D. R., and Hillman, G. C. (eds.),Foraging and Farming: The Evolution of Plant Domestication, Unwin Hyman, London, pp. 121–135.Google Scholar
  29. Lampert, R. J., and Hughes, P. J. (1988). Early human occupation of the Flinders Ranges.Records of the South Australian Museum 22: 139–168.Google Scholar
  30. Lewis, D. (1988).The Rock Paintings of Arnhem Land, Australia, British Archaeological Reports, International Series 415, Oxford.Google Scholar
  31. Lourandos, H. (1987). Swamp managers of southwestern Victoria. In Mulvaney, D. J., and White, J. P. (eds.),Australians To 1788, Fairfax, Syme and Weldon, Sydney, pp. 292–307.Google Scholar
  32. Lourandos, H. (1988). Seals, sedentism and change in the Bass Strait. In Meehan, B., and Jones, R. (eds.),Archaeology with Ethnography: An Australian Perspective, Australian National University, Canberra, pp. 277–285.Google Scholar
  33. McNiven, I. (1990).Prehistoric Aboriginal Settlement and Subsistence in the Cooloola Region, Coastal Southeast Queensland, Unpublished Ph.D. thesis, Department of Anthropology and Sociology, University of Queensland, Brisbane.Google Scholar
  34. Meehan, B., and Jones, R. (1988).Archaeology with Ethnography: An Australian Perspective, Australian National University, Canberra.Google Scholar
  35. Meehan, B., and White, N. (1990).Hunter-Gatherer Demography: Past and Present, Oceania Monograph 39, University of Sydney, Sydney.Google Scholar
  36. Morwood, M. J., and Tresize, P. J. (1989). Edge-ground axes in Pleistocene greater Australia: New evidence from SE Cape York Peninsula.Queensland Archaeological Research 6: 77–90.Google Scholar
  37. Mulvaney, D. J., and White, J. P. (1987).Australians to 1788, Fairfax, Syme and Weldon Associates, Sydney.Google Scholar
  38. O'Connor, S. (1990).Thirty Thousand Years in the Kimberley, Unpublished Ph.D. thesis, Department of Archaeology, University of Western Australia, Perth.Google Scholar
  39. Pardoe, C. (1991). Isolation and evolution in Tasmania.Current Anthropology 31: 1–21.Google Scholar
  40. Pretty, G. L., and Kricun, M. E. (1989). Prehistoric health status of the Roonka population.World Archaeology 21: 218–224.Google Scholar
  41. Ross, A. (1989). Question of numbers: The interaction of people and environment in the Holocene. In Donnelly, T. H., and Wasson, R. J. (eds.),CLIMANZ 3, CSIRO, Canberra.Google Scholar
  42. Smith, M. A. (1988).The Pattern and Timing of Prehistoric Settlement in Central Australia, Unpublished Ph.D. thesis, Department of Archaeology and Palaeoanthropology, University of New England, New South Wales.Google Scholar
  43. Smith, P., Prokopec, M., and Pretty, G. (1988). Dentition of a prehistoric population from Roonka Flat, South Australia.Archaeology in Oceania 23: 31–36.Google Scholar
  44. Solomon, S., Davidson, I., and Watson, D. (1990).Problem Solving in Taphonomy: Archaeological and Palaeontological Studies from Europe, Africa and Oceania, Tempus 2, Anthropology Museum, University of Queensland, Brisbane.Google Scholar
  45. Storm, P., and Nelson, A. J. (1992). The many faces of Wadjak man.Archaeology in Oceania 27: 37–46.Google Scholar
  46. Sullivan, M. E. (1987). The recent prehistoric exploitation of edible mussel in Aboriginal shell middens in southern New South Wales.Archaeology in Oceania 22: 97–106.Google Scholar
  47. Veth, P. M. (1989).The Prehistory of the Sandy Deserts: Spatial and Temporal Variation in Settlement and Subsistence Behaviour Within the Arid Zone of Australia, Unpublished Ph.D. thesis, Department of Archaeology, University of Western Australia, Perth.Google Scholar
  48. Walters, I. (1987).Another Kettle of Fish: The Prehistoric Moreton Bay Fishery, Unpublished Ph.D. thesis, Department of Anthropology and Sociology, University of Queensland, Brisbane.Google Scholar
  49. Woodroffe, C. D., Chappell, J., and Thom, B. G. (1988). Shell middens in the context of estuarine development, South Alligator River, Northern Territory.Archaeology in Oceania 23: 95–103.Google Scholar
  50. Yen, D. E. (1989). The domestication of environment. In Harris, D. R., and Hillman, G. C. (eds.),Foraging and Farming: The Evolution of Plant Domestication, Unwin Hyman, London, pp. 55–75.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Plenum Publishing Corporation 1993

Authors and Affiliations

  • Harry Lourandos
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Anthropology and SociologyUniversity of QueenslandBrisbaneAustralia

Personalised recommendations