Educational Psychology Review

, Volume 4, Issue 1, pp 95–132 | Cite as

Asians as stereotypes and students: Misperceptions that persist

  • Albert H. Yee
Articles On Multicultural Education


Although Asian Americans today are lauded as a “model minority” and Asian students are praised as “whiz kids,” racial prejudice toward Asians is as true today as it was in the past. American stereotypes of Asians appear characterized by persistent perceptual homogeneity and attitude-behavior inconsistencies. This review aims to: (a) display and analyze the basic stereotype toward Asians, (b) hypothesize an explanation for the basic Asian stereotype, (c) examine the Asian student stereotype by analyzing three factors commonly used to account for the achievement of Asian students, and (d) provide suggestions for research. Arguments for Asians' inherited advantages in IQ and cognitive abilities appear to be questionable. However, the factor of family encouragement and support as well as the work ethic and drive for education factor are found to be advantageous and disadvantageous to achievement, depending on how they are applied. The article discusses homogeneity-heterogeneity of perceptions, attitude-behavior consistency, achievement motivation, parent-child social interaction, mental health, and counseling needs relative to Asian students.

Key words

achievement motivation Asian Americans Asian students attitudes stereotypes 


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Allis, S. (September 2, 1991). Why 180 days aren't enough.TIME 64–65.Google Scholar
  2. Anastasi, A. (1937).Differential Psychology, Macmillan, New York.Google Scholar
  3. Anastasi, A. (1982).Psychological Testing (5th Ed.), Macmillan, New York.Google Scholar
  4. Atkinson, R. L., Atkinson, R. C., Smith, E. E., and Bem, D. J. (1990).Introduction to Psychology (10th Ed.), Harcourt Brace Jovanovich, San Diego, California.Google Scholar
  5. Awanohara, S. (February 8, 1990a). Japan/US friction: The enemy is us.Far Eastern Econ. Rev. 24–30.Google Scholar
  6. Awanohara, S. (November 22, 1990b). Political awakening: Asians in the U.S.Far Eastern Econ. Rev. 30–36.Google Scholar
  7. Awanohara, S. (July 18, 1991). Tyros, triads, tycoons.Far Eastern Econ. Rev. 50–51.Google Scholar
  8. Barth, G. P. (1964).Bitter Strength: A History of the Chinese in the United States, 1850–1870. Harvard University Press, Cambridge, Massachusetts.Google Scholar
  9. Benedict, R. (1948).The Chrysanthemum and the Sword: Patterns of Japanese Culture, Houghton Mifflin, Boston.Google Scholar
  10. Biemiller, L. (November 19, 1986). Asian students fear top colleges use quota systems.Chron. Higher Educ. 1, 34–36.Google Scholar
  11. Bloom, B. S. (1964).Stability and Change in Human Characteristics, Wiley, New York.Google Scholar
  12. Bo, Y. (1985). The ugly Chinaman.Renditions 23: 84–103 (Translated by D. J. Cohn).Google Scholar
  13. Boardman, A. E., Lloyd, A. S., and Wood, D. (1978). The process of education for twelfth grade Asian American students.J. Publ. Policy Multicult. Educ. 1(4): 338–353.Google Scholar
  14. Bodmer, W. F., and Cavalli-Sforza, L. L. (1970). Intelligence and race.Scientif. Am. 223(4): 19–29.Google Scholar
  15. Brand, D. (August 31, 1987). The new whiz kids.Time 42–51.Google Scholar
  16. Brigham, J. C. (1971). Ethnic stereotypes.Psychol. Bull. 76, 15–38.Google Scholar
  17. Brimer, A., and Griffin, P. (1985).Mathematics Achievement in Hong Kong Secondary Schools, Centre of Asian Studies, University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong.Google Scholar
  18. Broder, D. S. (January 18, 1990). Education: A machine in distress.Int. Herald Trib. 7.Google Scholar
  19. Buruma, I. (June 5, 1988). Obsessed with exams whatever the price.Far Eastern Econ. Rev. 46–47.Google Scholar
  20. Campbell, J. R., Connolly, C., Bologh, R., and Primavera, L. (April, 1984).Impact of Ethnicity on Math and Science Among the Gifted, Paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the American Educational Research Association, New Orleans.Google Scholar
  21. Carter, D., Pearson, C., and Shavlik, D. (1987–1988). Double jeopardy: Women of color in higher education.Educ. Rec. 68(4); 69(1): 98–103.Google Scholar
  22. Chan, C. K. (October 10, 1988). World's hardest workers in Hong Kong.South China Morning Post 10.Google Scholar
  23. Chan, J. (1976). Problems of psychological testing in two languages in Hong Kong. In Lord R. (ed.),Studies in Bilingual Education, University of Hong Kong Language Centre, Hong Kong, 110–113.Google Scholar
  24. Chan, J. (1979). Effects of parent-child interaction on verbal and other intellectual abilities.New Horizon Educ. J. 19: 19–30.Google Scholar
  25. Chen, C., and Stevenson, H. W. (1989). Homework: A cross-cultural examination.Child Devel. 60: 551–561.Google Scholar
  26. Chen, S. (April 9, 1987). Suicide and depression identified as serious problems for Asian youth.East/West 6.Google Scholar
  27. Cherlin, A. J.,et al. (1991). Longitudinal studies of effects of divorce on children in Great Britain and the United States.Science 252: 1386–1389.Google Scholar
  28. Cheung, F. M. C. (1986). Psychopathology among Chinese people. In Bond, M. (ed.),Psychology of the Chinese People, Oxford University Press, Hong Kong, pp. 367–393.Google Scholar
  29. Chin, F. (1972). Confessions of the Chinatown cowboy.Bull. Concerned Asian Scholars 4(3): 58–70.Google Scholar
  30. Chin, F. (1991).Donald Duk, Coffee House Press, Minneapolis.Google Scholar
  31. Chronicle of Higher Education Almanac (August 28, 1991). The nation: Students, p. 11.Google Scholar
  32. Clemens, S. (1880).Roughing It, American Publishing, New York.Google Scholar
  33. Coleman, J. S., and Associates (1966).Equality of Educational Opportunity, National Institute of Education, Washington, D.C.Google Scholar
  34. Cummings, W. (1980).Education and Equality in Japan, Princeton University Press, Princeton, N.J.Google Scholar
  35. Cushman, J., and Wang, G. W. (eds.) (1988).Changing Identities of the Southeast Asian Chinese Since World War II, Hong Kong University Press, Hong Kong.Google Scholar
  36. Daniels, R. (ed.) (1978).Anti-Chinese Violence in America, Arno, New York.Google Scholar
  37. Daniels, R. (1989).Chinese and Japanese in the United States Since 1850, University of Washington Press, Seattle.Google Scholar
  38. De Vos, G. (1973).Socialization for Achievement, University of California Press, Berkeley.Google Scholar
  39. Dodge, S. (September 20, 1989). SAT, ACT scores remain steady or drop slightly: Students from minority groups continue to show improvements.Chronicle of Higher Educ. A37–A38.Google Scholar
  40. Doolittle, J. (1895).Social Life of the Chinese (Vol. II), Harper, New York (Reprinted by Graham Brash, Singapore, 1986).Google Scholar
  41. Dorfman, D. H. (ed.) (1987).Japanese Education Today, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, D.C.Google Scholar
  42. Duke, B. C. (1986). The liberalisation of Japanese education.Comp. Educ. 22(1): 37–45.Google Scholar
  43. Epstein, A. L. (1978).Ethos and Identity: Three Studies in Ethnicity, Tavistock, London.Google Scholar
  44. Evangelauf, J. (March 9, 1988). Minorities' share of college enrollments edges up, as number of Asian and Hispanic students soars.Chronicle of Higher Educ. A33, A35.Google Scholar
  45. Fairchild, H. H. (1991). Scientific racism: The cloak of objectivity.Jounral of Social Issues, 47(3), 101–115.Google Scholar
  46. Field, M. (November 15, 1990). Chinatown-sur-Seine: Resurgent right sparks “Yellow Peril” canards.Far Eastern Econ. Rev. 62.Google Scholar
  47. Fields, G. (October 30, 1986). Japan's face problem.Asian Wall Street J. 10.Google Scholar
  48. Fisher, K. (1989). Asian parents get A's for attitude.APA Monitor 10.Google Scholar
  49. Flynn, J. R. (1987). The rise and fall of Japanese IQ.Bull. Brit. Psychol. Soc. 40: 459–464.Google Scholar
  50. Fredrickson, G. M. (1981).White Supremacy: A Comparative Study in American and South African History, Oxford University Press, New York.Google Scholar
  51. Gardner, D. P. (April 17, 1987). Comments on improving U.S. education from Japan's example. InImproving Education in Japan and the U.S., Symposium conducted American Center, Fukuoka, Japan honoring 40th anniversary Fulbright Program.Google Scholar
  52. Gardner, R. W., Robey, B., and Smith, P. C. (1985). Asian Americans: Growth, change, and diversity.Population Bull. 40(4).Google Scholar
  53. Gibson, M. A. (1987). The school performance of immigrant minorities: A comparative view.Anthropol. Educ. 18: 262–275.Google Scholar
  54. Goleman, D. (September 11, 1990). Probing school success of Asian-Americans.New York Times C1, C10.Google Scholar
  55. Gordon, M. (1964).Assimilation in American Life, Oxford University Press, New York.Google Scholar
  56. Gossett, T. F. (1963).Race: The History of an Idea in America, Southern Methodist University Press, Dallas.Google Scholar
  57. Gow, al. (1989). Approaches to study of tertiary students in Hong Kong.Bull. Hong Kong Psychol. Soc. 22–23: 55–77.Google Scholar
  58. Greeley, A. M. (1971). Ethnicity as an influence on behavior. In Feinstein, O. (ed.),Ethnic Groups in the City, D. C. Heath, Lexington, Massachusetts.Google Scholar
  59. Greene, E. (November 18, 1987). Asian-Americans find U.S. colleges insensitive, form campus organizations to fight bias.Chron. Higher Educ. 1, A38-A39.Google Scholar
  60. Harrell, S. (1985). Why do the Chinese work so hard?Modern China 11: 203–226.Google Scholar
  61. Hassan, K. (March 5, 1990). English makes a comeback in Malaysian education.Strait Times 21.Google Scholar
  62. Hecker, M. H. L., Chesney, M., Black, G. W., and Frautsch, N. (1988). Coronary-prone behavior in the Western Collaborative Group Study.Psychosmat. Med. 50: 153–164.Google Scholar
  63. Henry, W. A., III (April 9, 1990). Beyond the melting pot.TIME 26–29.Google Scholar
  64. Hewitt, B. (May 26, 1986). America's Asian state.Newsweek 21–25.Google Scholar
  65. Ho, D. Y. F. (1986). Chinese patterns of socialization: A critical review. In Bond, M. (ed.),Psychology of the Chinese People, Oxford University Press, Hong Kong, pp. 1–37.Google Scholar
  66. Holbrook, J. (1989).Science Education in Hong Kong: The National Report of the Hong Kong Science Study (Vol. 1, Primary and junior secondary science), Education Department, University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong.Google Scholar
  67. Holbrook, J. (1990).Science Education in Hong Kong: The Annual Report of the Hong Kong Science Study (Vol. 2, Pre-university science), Education Department, University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong.Google Scholar
  68. Holden, C. (1990). New center to study therapies and ethnicity.Science 251(4995): 748.Google Scholar
  69. Horn, M. (March 28, 1988). The mesmerizing power of racial myths.U.S. News and World Report 52–53.Google Scholar
  70. Horvat, A. (March 25, 1990). US-Japan ties: Is divorce an option?Straits Sunday Times 25.Google Scholar
  71. Hsia, J. (1987–1988). Asian Americans fight the myth of the super student.Educ. Rec. 68–69: 94–97.Google Scholar
  72. Hsia, J. (1988).Asian Americans in Higher Education and at Work, Erlbaum, Hillsdale, N.J.Google Scholar
  73. Hsu, F. L. K. (1971).The Challenge of the American Dream: The Chinese in the United States, Wadsworth, Belmont, California.Google Scholar
  74. Isaacs, H. R. (1962).Images of Asia: American Views of China and India, Capricorn Books, New York.Google Scholar
  75. James, B. (October 14, 1988). For stress, you can't beat Hong Kong (or Reno).Int. Herald Trib. 1, 5.Google Scholar
  76. Jaschik, S. (March 9, 1988). 350 Asian-American leaders create statewide lobbying group to influence the politics of higher education in California.Chron. Higher Educ. A21, A24.Google Scholar
  77. Jensen, A. R. (1969). How much can we boost IQ and scholastic achievement?Harvard Educ. Rev. 39: 1–123.Google Scholar
  78. Jensen, A. R. (1973).Educability and Group Differences Methuen, London.Google Scholar
  79. Jensen, A. R. (1980).Bias in Mental Testing Free Press, New York.Google Scholar
  80. Johnson, T. E. (May 19, 1986). Immigrants: New victims. A rising tide of violence hits Asian-Americans.Newsweek 27.Google Scholar
  81. Kasindorf, M. (December 6, 1982). Asian-Americans: A “model minority.”Newsweek 39, 41–42, 51.Google Scholar
  82. Kitano, H. H. L., and Daniels, R. (1988).Asian Americans: Emerging Minorities Prentice Hall, Englewood Cliffs, N.J.Google Scholar
  83. Krech, D., Crutchfield, R. S., and Ballachey, E. L. (1962).Individual in Society: A Textbook of Social Psychology McGraw-Hill, New York.Google Scholar
  84. LaPiere, R. T. (1934). Attitudes vs. action.Soc. Action 13: 230–237.Google Scholar
  85. Lau, S. K. (1981). Utilitarianistic familism: The basis of political stability. In King, A. Y. C., and Lee, R. P. L. (eds.),Social Life and Development in Hong Kong Chinese University Press, Hong Kong, pp. 195–216.Google Scholar
  86. Lee, S. Y., Ichikawa, V., and Stevenson, H. W. (1987). Beliefs and achievement in mathematics and reading: A cross-national study of Chinese, Japanese, and American children and their mothers.Adv. Motivation Achievement: Enhancing Motivation 5: 149–179.Google Scholar
  87. Lee, Y. T., and Ottati, V. (in press). Determinants of ingroup and outgroup perceptions of heterogeneity: An investigation of Sino-American stereotypes.J. Cross-cult. Psychol. Google Scholar
  88. Levine, A. (March 28, 1988). On campus, stereotypes persist.U.S. News and World Report 53.Google Scholar
  89. Lin, T. Y. (1984). Mental Health and Family Values. Public lecture at Chung Chi College, Chinese University of Hong Kong, March 1 (printed copy available from College).Google Scholar
  90. Liu, I. M. (1986). Chinese cognition. In Bond, M. (ed.),The Psychology of the Chinese People Oxford University Press, Hong Kong, pp. 73–105.Google Scholar
  91. Liu, I. M. (1991). A distinction between early and late educational achievements.Am. Psychol. 46: 876–877.Google Scholar
  92. Lord, L., and Linnon, N. (March 14, 1988). What puts the whiz in whiz kids.U.S. News and World Report 48–57.Google Scholar
  93. Lum, G. (June 9, 1988). Report reveals Stanford as a “racially troubled” university.East/West 3.Google Scholar
  94. Lydon, S. (1985).Chinese Gold: The Chinese in the Monterey Bay Region Capitola, Capitola, California.Google Scholar
  95. Lyman, S. M. (1970).The Asian in the West Desert Research Institute, Reno.Google Scholar
  96. Lynn, R. (1982). IQ in Japan and the United States shows a growing disparity.Nature 297: 222–223.Google Scholar
  97. Lynn, R. (1991). Educational achievements of Asian Americans.Am. Psychol. 46: 875–878.Google Scholar
  98. Lynn, R., and Dziobon, J. (1980). On the intelligence of the Japanese and other Mongoloid peoples.Personal. Individ. Diff. 1: 95–96.Google Scholar
  99. Lynn, R., and Hampton, S. (1986). Intellectual abilities of Japanese children: An assessment of 2 1/2–8 1/2-year-olds derived from the McCarthy Scales of Children's Abilities.Intelligence 10: 41–58.Google Scholar
  100. Lyons, J. A. (November 24, 1989). Asians 27.4% of U.C. Berkeley undergrads, 28.6% of freshmen.Asian Week 4.Google Scholar
  101. Lyons, J. A. (January 12, 1990a). State's limited-English students doubled in 1980s.Asian Week 11.Google Scholar
  102. Lyons, J. A. (May 18, 1990b). White House celebrates Asian Pacific heritage month.Asian Week 15.Google Scholar
  103. Matute-Bianchi, M. E. (1986). Ethnic identities and patterns of school success and failure among Mexican-descent and Japanese-American students in a California high school: An ethnographic analysis.Am. J. Educ. 95: 233–255.Google Scholar
  104. Mealey, L. (1990). Differential use of reproductive strategies by human groups?Psychol. Sci. 1: 385–387.Google Scholar
  105. Mickle, K., and Chan, R. (1986).The Cross-Cultural Adaptation of Hong Kong Chinese Students at Canadian Universities Canadian Bureau for International Education, Ottawa, Ontario.Google Scholar
  106. Miller, S. C. (1969).The American Image of the Chinese, 1785–1882 University of California Press, Berkeley.Google Scholar
  107. Milner, E. (1951). A study of the relationship between reading readiness in grade one school children and patterns of parent-child interaction.Child Devel. 22: 95–112.Google Scholar
  108. Miura, I. T., and Kim, C. C. (August 1987). Cross-national Comparisons of Children's Cognitive Representation of Number. Paper presented at the Annual Convention of the American Psychological Association, New York.Google Scholar
  109. Moore, T. H. (June 28, 1989). Some top colleges admit more Asian Americans, but deny that the increase is result of pressure.Chron. Higher Educ. A21.Google Scholar
  110. Moore, S. D., and Stanley, J. C. (1988). Family backgrounds of young Asian Americans who reason extremely well mathematically.J. Illinois Council for the Gifted 7: 11–14.Google Scholar
  111. Nagai, M. (1975).An Owl Before Dusk Carnegie Commission on Higher Education, Berkeley, California.Google Scholar
  112. Nee, V., and Sanders, J. (1985). The road to parity: Determinants of the socioeconomic achievements of Asian Americans. In Alba, R. D. (ed.),Ethnicity and Race in the U.S.A.: Toward the Twenty-First Century Routledge & Kegan Paul, London, pp. 75–93.Google Scholar
  113. Nee, V. G., and Nee, B. (1973).Longtime Californ' Pantheon, New York.Google Scholar
  114. New York Times News Service (March 20, 1990a). Japan to look into phenomenon called “death from overwork.”Straits Times 7.Google Scholar
  115. New York Times News Service (March 23, 1990b). Myth of the “model minority” in U.S.Straits Times 13.Google Scholar
  116. Ng, J. (March 8, 1991a). 11 Asian High schoolers win science awards.Asian Week 2.Google Scholar
  117. Ng, J. (March 15, 1991b). Suicide claims increasing number of Asian teens.Asian Week 15.Google Scholar
  118. Novak, M. (1972).The Rise of the Unmeltable Ethnics: Politics and Culture in the Seventies Macmillan, New York.Google Scholar
  119. Ogbu, J. U. (1987). Variability in minority school performance: A problem in search of an explanation.Anthropol. Educ. 18: 312–334.Google Scholar
  120. Ogbu, J. U. (1990a). Minority status and literacy in comparative perspective.Daedalus 119(2): 141–167.Google Scholar
  121. Ogbu, J. U. (1990b) Minority education in comparative perspective.J. Negro Educ. 59(1): 45–57.Google Scholar
  122. Ohnuma, K. (February 1, 1991). Asian Pacifics show big gains in college enrollment: But some Southeast Asian groups lag.Asian Week 1, 3.Google Scholar
  123. Ohta, T. (1986). Problems and perspectives in Japanese education.Comp. Educ. 22(1): 27–30.Google Scholar
  124. Olzak, S. (1986). A competition model of ethnic collective action in American cities, 1877–1889. In Olzak, S., and Nagel, J. (eds.),Competitive Ethnic Relations Academic Press, Orlando, Florida, pp. 17–46.Google Scholar
  125. Oreskes, M. (February 7, 1990). A U.S. poll finds “real erosion” in feelings about Japan.Int. Herald Trib. 1, 6.Google Scholar
  126. Oxnam, R. (November 20, 1986). Why Asians succeed here.New York Times Magazine 136: 72.Google Scholar
  127. Portes, A., and Manning, R. D. (1986). The immigrant enclave: Theory and empirical examples. In Olzak, S., and Nagel, J. (eds.),Competitive Ethnic Relations Academic Press, Orlando, Florida, pp. 47–68.Google Scholar
  128. President's Commission on Excellence in Education (1983).A Nation at Risk Government Printing Office, Washington, D.C.Google Scholar
  129. Reischauer, E. O. (1977).The Japanese Belknap, Cambridge, Massachusetts.Google Scholar
  130. Renard, D. A. (April 10, 1986). Vietnamese pioneers show true grit in Texas.Far Eastern Econ. Rev. 40–41.Google Scholar
  131. Roethlisberger, F. J., and Dickson. W. J. (1939).Management and the Worker Harvard University Press, Cambridge, Massachusetts.Google Scholar
  132. Rohlen, T. P. (1983).Japan's High Schools University of California Press, Berkeley.Google Scholar
  133. Rosen, B. C. (1956). The achievement syndrome: A psycho-cultural dimension of social stratification.Am. Soc. Rev. 21: 203–211.Google Scholar
  134. Rowan, C. (1991).Breaking Barriers Little, Brown, New York.Google Scholar
  135. Rowe, E. (1966).Failure in School: Aspects of the Problem in Hong Kong Hong Kong University Press, Hong Kong.Google Scholar
  136. Rowley, A. (March 22, 1990). A friend in need.Far Eastern Econ. Rev. 63.Google Scholar
  137. Rushton, J. P. (1991). Race differences: A reply to Mealey.Psychol. Sci. 2: 126.Google Scholar
  138. Salholtz, E. (February 16, 1987). Do colleges set Asian quotas?Newsweek 46.Google Scholar
  139. Sandmeyer, E. C. (1939).The Anti-Chinese Movement in California University of California Press, Berkeley.Google Scholar
  140. Sanger, D. E. (March 20, 1990). Can too much work be fatal? Japan investigates.Int. Herald Trib. 2.Google Scholar
  141. Schwartz, J. (February 22, 1988). The “Eastern Capital” of Asia.Newsweek 18–20.Google Scholar
  142. Scott, I. (1989).Political Change and the Crisis of Legitimacy in Hong Kong Oxford University Press, Hong Kong.Google Scholar
  143. Seligman, D. (April 15, 1991). Is America smart enough?Nat. Rev. 24–31.Google Scholar
  144. Shields, J. J. (ed.) (1989)Japanese Schooling: Patterns of Socialization, Equality, and Political Control Penn State Press, University Park, Pennsylvania.Google Scholar
  145. Shimahara, N. K. (1986). The cultural basis of student achievement in Japan.Comp. Educ. 22(1): 19–26.Google Scholar
  146. Simons, M. (June 9, 1988). An impressive Latin American success story had Japanese roots.Star-Bulletin (Honolulu) F-2.Google Scholar
  147. Singer, K. (1985). Psychiatric morbidity in university students in Hong Kong: Prevalence, sociocultural and clinical aspects.J. Hong Kong Med. Assoc. 37: 117–120.Google Scholar
  148. Smith, L. (February 26, 1990). Fear and loathing of Japan.Fortune 50–60.Google Scholar
  149. Springer, R. (July 30, 1987). Study shows Asians have lowest rate of admissions to UC graduate programs.East/West 1, 10.Google Scholar
  150. Stanley, J. C. (1988). Some characteristics of SMPY's “700–800 on SAT-M before age 13 group”; Youth who reasonextremely well mathematically.Gifted Child Quart. 32: 205–209.Google Scholar
  151. Stevenson, H. W. (1988). Children's problems in learning to read Chinese, Japanese, and English. In Wagner, D. A. (ed.),The Future of Literacy in a Changing World Pergamon, New York, pp. 131–150.Google Scholar
  152. Stevenson, H. W., and Lee, S. Y. (1990). Contexts of achievement.Monogr. Soc. Res. Child Devel. (Serial no. 221) 55(1–2).Google Scholar
  153. Stevenson, H. W., Stigler, J. W., Lee, S. Y., and Lucker, G. W. (1985). Cognitive performance and academic achievement of Japanese, Chinese, and American children.Child Devel. 56: 718–734.Google Scholar
  154. Stevenson, H. W., Lee, S. Y., and Stigler, J. W. (1986). Mathematics achievement of Chinese, Japanese, and American children.Science 237: 693–699.Google Scholar
  155. Stigler, J. W., Lee, S. Y., and Stevenson, H. W. (1987). Mathematics classrooms in Japan, Taiwan, and the United States.Child Devel. 58: 1272–1285.Google Scholar
  156. Sue, S., and Kitano, H. H. L. (1973). Stereotypes as a measure of success.J. Soc. Iss. 29: 83–92.Google Scholar
  157. Sue, S., and Morishima, J. K. (1982).The Mental Health of Asian Americans Jossey-Bass, San Francisco.Google Scholar
  158. Sue, S., and Okazaki, S. (1990). Asian-American educational achievements: A phenomenon in search of an explanation.Am. Psychol. 45: 913–920.Google Scholar
  159. Sue, S., and Okazaki, S. (1991). Explanations for Asian-American achievements: A reply.Am. Psychol. 46: 878–880.Google Scholar
  160. Sue, S., and Zane, N. W. S. (1985). Academic achievement and socioemotional adjustment among Chinese university students.J. Counsel. Psychol. 32: 570–579.Google Scholar
  161. Suzuki, T. (1969).Japanese Immigrant in Brazil: Narrative Part University of Tokyo Press, Tokyo.Google Scholar
  162. Tajfel, H. (1970). Experiments in intergroup discrimination.Scientif. Am. 223: 96–102.Google Scholar
  163. Takaki, R. (1989).Strangers from a Different Shore: A History of Asian Americans Little, Brown, Boston.Google Scholar
  164. Taylor, P. A. (1981). Education, ethnicity, and cultural assimilation in the United States.Ethnicity 8: 31–49.Google Scholar
  165. Thoresen, C. E., Friedman, M., Powell, L. H., Gill, J. J., and Ulmer, D. K. (1985). Altering the type A behavior pattern in postinfarction patients.J. Cardiopulm. Rehab. 5: 258–266.Google Scholar
  166. TIME (March 4, 1990). Strangers in paradise.Google Scholar
  167. Vernon, P. E. (1982).The Abilities and Achievements of Orientals in North America Academic Press, New York.Google Scholar
  168. Weiner, B. (1985). An attribution theory of achievement motivation and emotion.Psychol. Rev. 92: 548–573.Google Scholar
  169. Weiss, M. S. (1970). Selective acculturation and the dating process: The patterning of Chinese-Caucasian interracial dating.J. Marriage Family 32: 273–278.Google Scholar
  170. Weizmann, F., Wiener, N. I., Wiesenthal, D. L., and Ziegler, M. (1990). Differential K theory and racial hierarchies.Canadian Psychology, 31(1), 1–13.Google Scholar
  171. Wheeler, D. L. (February 1, 1989). Psychologist's view on race differences stirs controversy at meeting.Chron. Higher Educ. A6.Google Scholar
  172. Wicker, A. W. (1969). Attitudes versus actions: The relationship of verbal and overt behavioral responses to attitude objects.J. Soc. Iss. 25(4), 41–78.Google Scholar
  173. Wilder, D. A. (1985). Social categorization: Implications for creation and reduction of intergroup bias. In Berkowitz, L. (ed.),Advances in Experimental Social Psychology, (Vol. 19), Academic Press, New York.Google Scholar
  174. Will, G. F. (April 16, 1989). Prejudice against excellence.Washington Post B7.Google Scholar
  175. Yang, K. S. (1986). Chinese personality and its change. In Bond, M (ed.),Psychology of the Chinese People Oxford University Press, Hong Kong.Google Scholar
  176. Yee, A. H. (1973). Myopic perceptions and textbooks: Chinese Americans' search for identity.J. Soc. Iss. 29: 99–113.Google Scholar
  177. Yee, A. H. (1983). Ethnicity and race: Psychological perspectives.Educ. Psychol. 18: 14–24.Google Scholar
  178. Yee, A. H. (1989a).A People Misruled: Hong Kong and the Chinese Stepping Stone Syndrome. Hong Kong: API/UEA Press, (Revised 2nd Edition, 1992 Heinemann Asia, Singapore).Google Scholar
  179. Yee, A. H. (1989b). Cross-cultural perspectives on higher education in East Asia: Psychological effects upon Asian students.J. Multilin. Multicult. Devel. 10(3): 213–232.Google Scholar
  180. Yee, A. H. (November, 1991). Psychology needs a scientific policy on race.SPSSI Newsletter.Google Scholar
  181. Yu, C. Y. (May 10, 1969). The golden spike's unsung heroes.San Francisco Examiner 14.Google Scholar
  182. Zinn, M. B., and Eitzen, D. S. (1990).Diversity in families (2nd Ed.), Harper & Row, New York.Google Scholar
  183. Zuckerman, M. (1990). Some dubious premises in research and theory on racial differences: Scientific, social, and ethical issues.Am. Psychol. 45: 1297–1303.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Plenum Publishing Corporation 1992

Authors and Affiliations

  • Albert H. Yee
    • 1
  1. 1.Social and Behavioral Sciences DivisionMarist CollegePoughkeepsie

Personalised recommendations