Educational Psychology Review

, Volume 2, Issue 2, pp 77–172 | Cite as

A multidimensional, hierarchical model of self-concept: Theoretical and empirical justification

  • Herbert W. Marsh


The self-concept construct is one of the oldest in psychology and is used widely in many disciplines. Despite its popularity, reviews prior to the 1980s typically emphasized the lack of theoretical basis in most studies, the poor quality of measurement instruments, methodological shortcomings, and a general lack of consistent findings except, perhaps, support for the null hypothesis. This situation called into question the usefulness of the self-concept construct. In dramatic contrast, the last decade has seen considerable progress in theory, measurement, and research. This progress is due at least in part to a stronger emphasis on a multidimensional self-concept instead of global measures of self. The purpose of this invited review is to summarize how my self-concept research has contributed to these advances. This review further substantiates the claim that self-concept cannot be understood adequately if its multidimensionality is ignored, and recommends that researchers use well-constructed multidimensional measures of self-concept instead of relying solely on global measures of self.

Key words

self-concept multidimensional global measures 


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Alwin, D. F., and Otto, L. B. (1977). High school context effects on aspirations.Sociol. Educat. 50: 259–273.Google Scholar
  2. Antill, J. K., and Cunningham, J. D. (1979). Self-esteem as a function of masculinity in both sexes.J. Consult. Clin. Psychol. 47: 783–785.Google Scholar
  3. Antill, J. K., Cunningham, J. D., Russell, G., and Thompson, N. L. (1981). An Australian sex-role.Austral. J. Psychol. 33: 169–183.Google Scholar
  4. Bachman, J. G. (1970).Youth in Transition, Vol. 2: The Impact of Family Background and Intelligence on Tenth-Grade Boys, Institute for Social Research, Ann Arbor, Michigan.Google Scholar
  5. Bachman, J. G., and O'Malley, P. M. (1977). Self-esteem in young men: A longitudinal analysis of the impact of educational and occupational attainment.J. Personal. Soc. Psychol. 35: 365–380.Google Scholar
  6. Bachman, J. G., and O'Malley, P. M. (1986). Self-concepts, self-esteem, and educational experiences: The frogpond revisited (again).J. Personal. Soc. Psychol. 50: 33–46.Google Scholar
  7. Bandura, A. (1986).Social Foundations of Thought and Action: A Social Cognitive Theory, Prentice-Hall, Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey.Google Scholar
  8. Bar-Tal, D. (1978). Attributional analysis of achievement-related behavior.Rev. Educat. Res. 48: 259–271.Google Scholar
  9. Bem, S. L. (1974). The measurement of psychological androgyny.J. Consult. Clin. Psychol. 42: 155–162.Google Scholar
  10. Boersma, F. J., and Chapman, J. W. (1979).Student's Perception of Ability Scale Manual University of Alberta, Edmonton, Canada.Google Scholar
  11. Bradley, G. W. (1978). Self-serving biases in the attribution processes: A reexamination of the fact or fiction question.J. Personal. Soc. Psychol. 36: 56–71.Google Scholar
  12. Brookover, W. B. (1962).Self-Concept of Ability Scale Educational Publication Services, East Lansing, Michigan.Google Scholar
  13. Brookover, W. B. (1989).Self-Concept of Ability Scale — A Review and Further Analysis, Paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the American Educational Research Association.Google Scholar
  14. Brookover, W. B., and Erikson, E. L. (1975).Sociology of Education Dorsey Press, Homewood, Illinois.Google Scholar
  15. Burns, R. B. (1979).The Self-Concept: Theory, Measurement, Development and Behaviour Longman, London.Google Scholar
  16. Byrne, B. M. (1984). The general/academic self-concept nomological network: A review of construct validation research.Rev. Educat. Res. 54: 427–456.Google Scholar
  17. Byrne, B. M. (1986). Self-concept/academic achievement relations: An investigation of dimensionality, stability, and causality.Canad. J. Behav. Sci. 18: 173–186.Google Scholar
  18. Campbell, D. T., and Fiske, D. W. (1959). Convergent and discriminant validation by the multitrait-multimethod matrix.Psychol. Bull. 56: 81–105.Google Scholar
  19. Calsyn, R., and Kenny, D. (1977). Self-concept of ability and perceived evaluations by others: Cause or effect of academic achievement?J. Educat. Psychol. 69: 136–145.Google Scholar
  20. Constantinople, A. (1973). Masculinity-femininity: An exception to a famous dictum?Psychol. Bull. 80: 389–407.Google Scholar
  21. Cook, E. P. (1985).Psychological Androgyny Pergamon, New York.Google Scholar
  22. Coombs, A., Soper, D., and Courson, C. (1963). The measurement of self-concept and self report.Educat. Psychol. Meas. 23: 493–500.Google Scholar
  23. Coopersmith, S. A. (1967).The Antecedents of Self-Esteem W. H. Freeman, San Francisco.Google Scholar
  24. Covington, M. V. (1984). The motive of self-worth. In Ames, R. E. and Ames, C. (eds.),Research on Motivation in Education, Vol. 1, Academic Press, Orlando, Florida, pp. 78–114.Google Scholar
  25. Covington, M. V., and Omelich, C. L. (1979). Are causal attributions causal? A path analysis of the cognitive model of achievement motivation.J. Personal. Soc. Psychol. 37: 1487–1504.Google Scholar
  26. Crandall, R. (1973). The measurement of self-esteem and related constructs. In Robinson, J., and Shaver, P. (eds.),Measures of Social Psychological Attitudes, Institute for Social Research, Ann Arbor, Michigan, pp. 45–158.Google Scholar
  27. Davis, J. A. (1966). The campus as a frog pond: An application of theory of relative deprivation to career decisions for college men.Am. J. Sociol. 72: 17–31.Google Scholar
  28. Dusek, J. B., and Flaherty, J. F. (1981). The development of self-concept during adolescent years.Monographs of the Society for Research in Child Development, 46 (4, serial no. 191).Google Scholar
  29. Fleming, J. S., and Courtney, B. E. (1984). The dimensionality of self-esteem: II: Hierarchical facet model for revised measurement scales.J. Personal. Soc. Psychol. 46: 404–421.Google Scholar
  30. Godfrey, R. (1974).A Review of Research and Evaluation Literature on Outward Bound and Related Educational Programs Colorado Outward Bound School, Denver, Colorado.Google Scholar
  31. Hall, J. A., and Taylor, M. C. (1985). Psychological androgony and the masculinity × femininity interaction.J. Personal. Soc. Psychol. 49: 429–435.Google Scholar
  32. Hansford, B. C., and Hattie, J. A. (1982). The relationship between self and achievement/performance measures.Rev. Educat. Res. 52: 123–142.Google Scholar
  33. Harter, S. (1982). The perceived competence scale for children.Child Devel. 53: 87–97.Google Scholar
  34. Harter, S. (1983). Developmental perspectives on the self-system. In Mussen, P. H. (ed.),Handbook of Child Psychology, Vol. IV, 4th ed., Wiley, New York, pp. 275–385.Google Scholar
  35. Harter, S. (1985). Processes underlying the construction, maintenance, and enhancement of the self-concept in children. In Suls, J., and Greenwald, A. G. (eds.),The Development of Self Lawrence Erlbaum, Hillsdale, New Jersey, pp. 137–181.Google Scholar
  36. Harter, S., and Pike, R. (1984). The pictorial scale of perceived competence and social acceptance for young children.Child Devel. 55: 1969–1982.Google Scholar
  37. Higgins, E. T., Klein, R., and Strauman, T. (1985). Self-concept discrepancy theory: A psychological model for distinguishing among different aspects of depression and anxiety.Soc. Cognit. 3: 51–76.Google Scholar
  38. Hoge, D. R., and McCarthy, J. D. (1984). Influence of individual and group identity salience in the global self-esteem of youth.J. Personal. Soc. Psychol. 47: 403–414.Google Scholar
  39. James, W. (1890/1963).The Principles of Psychology Holt, Rinehart & Winston, New York.Google Scholar
  40. Jerusalem, M. (1984). Reference group, learning environment and self-evaluations: A dynamic multi-level analysis with latent variables. In Schwarzer, R. (ed.),The Self in Anxiety, Stress and Depression Elsevier Science Publishers, New York, pp. 61–73.Google Scholar
  41. Joreskog, K. G., and Sorbom, D. (1988).LISREL 7: A Guide to the Program and Applications SPSS, Inc., Chicago.Google Scholar
  42. Kulik, C. L. (1985).Effects of Inter-Class Ability Grouping on Achievement and Self-Esteem, Paper presented at the 1985 Annual Meeting of the American Psychological Association, Los Angeles.Google Scholar
  43. Kulik, C. L., and Kulik, J. A. (1982). Effects of ability grouping on secondary school students: A meta-analysis of evaluation findings.Am. Educat. Res. J. 21: 799–806.Google Scholar
  44. Markus, H., and Wurf, E. (1987). The dynamic self-cocnept: A social psychological perspective.Ann. Rev. Psychol. 38: 299–337.Google Scholar
  45. Marsh, H. W. (1984a). Relationships among dimensions of self-attribution, dimensions of self-concept, and academic achievements.J. Educat. Psychol. 76: 1291–1308.Google Scholar
  46. Marsh, H. W. (1984b). Self-concept, social comparison and ability grouping: A reply to Kulik and Kulik.Am. Educat. Res. J. 21: 799–806.Google Scholar
  47. Marsh, H. W. (1984c). Self-concept: The application of a frame of reference model to explain paradoxical results.Austral. J. Educat. 28: 165–181.Google Scholar
  48. Marsh, H. W. (1985). The structure of masculinity/femininity: An application of confirmatory factor analysis to higher-order factor structures and factorial invariance.Multivar. Behav. Res. 20: 427–449.Google Scholar
  49. Marsh, H. W. (1986a). The bias of negatively worded items in rating scales for young children: A cognitive-developmental phenomena.Devel. Psychol. 22: 37–49.Google Scholar
  50. Marsh, H. W. (1986b). Global self esteem: Its relation to specific facets of self-concept and their importance.J. Personal. Soc. Psychol. 51: 1224–1236.Google Scholar
  51. Marsh, H. W. (1986c). The self-serving effect (bias?) in academic attributions: Its relation to academic achievement and self-concept.J. Educat. Psychol. 78: 190–200.Google Scholar
  52. Marsh, H. W. (1986d). Verbal and math self-concepts: An internal/external frame of reference model.Am. Educat. Res. J. 23: 129–149.Google Scholar
  53. Marsh, H. W. (1987a). The big-fish-little-pond effect on academic self-concept.J. Educat. Psychol. 79: 280–295.Google Scholar
  54. Marsh, H. W. (1987b). The hierarchical structure of self-concept and the application of hierarchical confirmatory factor analysis.J. Educat. Meas. 24: 17–19.Google Scholar
  55. Marsh, H. W. (1987c). Masculinity, femininity and androgyny: Their relations to multiple dimensions of self-concept.Multivar. Behav. Res. 22: 91–118.Google Scholar
  56. Marsh, H. W. (1988a). Causal effects of academic self-concept on academic achievement: A reanalysis of Newman (1984).J. Exper. Educat. 56: 100–104.Google Scholar
  57. Marsh, H. W. (1988b). Multitrait-multimethod analyses. In Keeves, J. P. (ed.),Educational Research Methodology, Measurement and Evaluation: An International Handbook Pergamon Press, Oxford.Google Scholar
  58. Marsh, H. W. (1988c).Self-Description Questionnaire: A Theoretical and Empirical Basis for the Measurement of Multiple Dimensions of Preadolescent Self-Concept: A Test Manual and a Research Monograph The Psychological Corporation, San Antonio, Texas.Google Scholar
  59. Marsh, H. W. (1989a). Age and sex effect in multiple dimensions of self-concept: Preadolescence to early-adulthood.J. Educat. Psychol. 81: 417–430.Google Scholar
  60. Marsh, H. W. (1989b).The Failure of Academically Selective High Schools to Deliver Academic Benefits: The Importance of Academic Self-Concept and Educational Aspirations, Paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the American Educational Research Association.Google Scholar
  61. Marsh, H. W. (1990). The influence of internal and external frames of reference on the formation of English and math self-concepts.J. Educat. Psychol. 82:107–116.Google Scholar
  62. Marsh, H. W. (in press a). The causal ordering of academic self-concept and academic achievement: A multiwave, longitudinal panelanalysisJ. Educat. Psychol. Google Scholar
  63. Marsh, H. W. (in press b).Self-Description Questionnaire (SDQ) II:A Theoretical and Empirical Basis for the Measurement of Multiple Dimensions of Adolescent Self-Concept: An Interim Test Manual and a Research Monograph, The Psychological Corporation, San Antonio, Texas.Google Scholar
  64. Marsh, H. W. (in press c).Self-Description Questionnaire (SDQ) III: A Theoretical and Empirical Basis for the Measurement of Multiple Dimensions of Late Adolescent Self-Concept: An Interim Test Manual and a Research Monograph, The Psychological Corporation, San Antonio, Texas.Google Scholar
  65. Marsh, H. W. (in press d). The structure of academic self-concept: The Marsh/Sharelson model.J. Educat. Psychol. Google Scholar
  66. Marsh, H. W., Antill, J. K., and Cunningham, J. D. (1987). Masculinity, femininity and androgyny: Relations to self esteem and social desirability.J. Personal. 55: 661–685.Google Scholar
  67. Marsh, H. W., Barnes, J., Cairns, L., and Tidman, M. (1984a). The Self-Description Questionnaire (SDQ): Age effects in the structure and level of self-concept for preadolescent children.J. Educat. Psychol. 76: 940–956.Google Scholar
  68. Marsh, H. W., Barnes, J., and Hocevar, D. (1985). Self-other agreement on multidimensional self-concept ratings: Factor analysis and multitrait-multimethod analysis.J. Personal. Soc. Psychol. 49: 1360–1377.Google Scholar
  69. Marsh, H. W., and Byrne, B. M. (1989). Do we see ourselves as others infer: Self-other agreement on multiple dimensions of self-concept. (Paper in review).Google Scholar
  70. Marsh, H. W., Byrne, B. M., and Shavelson, R. (1988). A multifaceted academic self-concept: Its hierarchical structure and its relation to academic achievement.J. Educat. Psychol. 80: 366–380.Google Scholar
  71. Marsh, H. W., Cairns, L., Relich, J. D., Barnes, J., and Debus, R. (1984b). The relationship between dimensions of self-attribution and dimensions of self-concept.J. Educat. Psychol. 76: 3–32.Google Scholar
  72. Marsh, H. W., and Gouvernet, P. (1989). Multidimensional self-concepts and perceptions of control: Construct validation of responses by children.J. Educat. Psychol. 81: 57–69.Google Scholar
  73. Marsh, H. W., and Hocevar, D. (1985). The application of confirmatory factor analysis to the study of self-concept: First and higher order factor structures and their invariance across age groups.Psychol. Bull. 97: 562–582.Google Scholar
  74. Marsh, H. W., and Jackson, S. (1986). Multidimensional self-concepts, masculinity and femininity as a function of women's involvement in athletics.Sex Roles 15: 391–416.Google Scholar
  75. Marsh, H. W., and MacDonald-Holmes, I. W. (1990). Multidimensional self-concepts: Construct validation of responses by children.Am. Educat. Res. J. (in press).Google Scholar
  76. Marsh, H. W., and Myers, M. R. (1986). Masculinity, femininity, and androgyny: A methodological and theoretical critique.Sex Roles 14: 397–430.Google Scholar
  77. Marsh, H. W., and O'Neill, R. (1984). Self-Description Questionnaire III (SDQ III): The construct validity of multidimensional self-concept ratings by late-adolescents.J. Educat. Meas. 21: 153–174.Google Scholar
  78. Marsh, H. W., and Parker, J. W. (1984). Determinants of self-concept: Is it better to be a relatively large fish in a small pond even if you don't learn to swim as well.J. Personal. Soc. Psychol. 47: 213–231.Google Scholar
  79. Marsh, H. W., and Peart, N. (1988). Competitive and cooperative physical fitness training programs for girls: Effects on physical fitness and on multidimensional self-concepts.J. Sport Exer. Psychol. 10: 390–407.Google Scholar
  80. Marsh, H. W., Relich, J. D., and Smith, I. D. (1983). Self-concept: The construct validity of interpretations based upon the SDQ.J. Personal. Soc. Psychol. 45: 173–187.Google Scholar
  81. Marsh, H. W., and Richards, G. E. (1987). The multidimensionality of the Rotter I-E Scale and its higher-order structure: An application of confirmatory factor analysis.Multivar. Behav. Res. 22: 39–69.Google Scholar
  82. Marsh, H. W., and Richards, G. (1988). The Outward Bound Bridging Course for low achieving high-school males: Effect on academic achievement and multidimensional self-concepts.Austral. J. Psychol. 40: 281–298.Google Scholar
  83. Marsh, H. W., Richards, G., and Barnes, J. (1986a). Multidimensional self-concepts: A longterm followup of the effect of participation in an Outward Bound program.Personal. Soc. Psychol. Bull. 12: 475–492.Google Scholar
  84. Marsh, H. W., Richards, G., and Barnes, J. (1986b). Multidimensional self-concepts: The effect of participation in an Outward Bound program.J. Personal. Soc. Psychol. 45: 173–187.Google Scholar
  85. Marsh, H. W., and Sharelson, R. (1985). Self-concept: Its multifaceted, hierarchical structure.Educat. Psychologist 20: 107–125.Google Scholar
  86. Marsh, H. W., Smith, I. D., and barnes, J. (1984). Multidimensional self-concepts: Relationships with inferred self-concepts and academic achievement.Austral. J. Psychol. 36: 367–386.Google Scholar
  87. Marsh, H. W., Smith, I. D., Barnes, J., and Butler, S. (1983). Self-concept: Reliability, dimensionality, validity, and the measurement of change.J. Educat. Psychol. 75: 772–790.Google Scholar
  88. Marx, R. W., and Winne, P. H. (1978). Construct interpretations of three self-concept inventories.Am. Educat. Res. J. 15: 99–108.Google Scholar
  89. McClelland, D. C. (1965). Toward a theory of motive acquisition.Am. Psychol. 20: 321–333.Google Scholar
  90. Miller, D. T., and Ross, M. (1975). Self-serving biases in the attribution of causality: Fact or fiction?Psychol. Bull. 82: 213–225.Google Scholar
  91. Miyamoto, S. F., and Dornbusch, S. (1956). A test of interactionist hypotheses of self-conception.Am. J. Sociol. 15: 399–403.Google Scholar
  92. Nicholls, J. (1979). Development of perception of attainment and causal attributions for success and failure in reading.J. Educat. Psychol. 71: 94–99.Google Scholar
  93. Newman, R. S. (1980). Alleviating learned helplessness in a wilderness setting: An application of attribution theory to Outward Bound. In Fyans, L. J. (ed.),Achievement Motivation: Recent Trends in Theory and Research Plenum Press, New York, pp. 312–345.Google Scholar
  94. Newman, R. S. (1984). Children's achievement and self-evaluations in mathematics: A longitudinal study.J. Educat. Psychol. 76: 857–873.Google Scholar
  95. Norwich, B. (1987). Self-efficacy and mathematics achievement: A study of their relation.J. Educat. Psychol. 79: 384–387.Google Scholar
  96. O'Malley, P. M., and Bachman, J. G. (1983). Self-esteem: Change and stability between ages 13 and 23.Dev. Psychol. 19: 257–268.Google Scholar
  97. Relich, J. D. (1983).Attribution and Its Relation to Other Affective Variables in Predicting and Inducing Arithmetic Achievement: An Attributional Approach to Increased Self-Efficacy and Achievement in Arithmetic, Unpublished doctoral dissertation, University of Sydney, Sydney, Australia.Google Scholar
  98. Reuman, D. A. (1989). How social comparison mediates the relation between ability-grouping practices and students' achievement expectancies in mathematics.J. Educat. Psychol. 81: 178–189.Google Scholar
  99. Riess, M., Rosenfield, P., Melburg, V., and Tedeschi, J. T. (1981). Self-serving attributions: Biased private perceptions and distorted public dispositions.J. Personal. Soc. Psychol. 41: 224–231.Google Scholar
  100. Richards, G. E. (1977).Some Educational Implications and Contributions of Outward Bound Australian Outward Bound Foundation, Sydney, Australia.Google Scholar
  101. Richards, G. E., and Richards, M. J. F. (1981).Outward Bound Bridging Course 1981 Australian Outward Bound Foundation, Sydney, Australia.Google Scholar
  102. Rogers, C. M., Smith, M. D., and Coleman, J. M. (1978). Social comparison in the classroom: The relationship between academic achievement and self-concept.J. Educat. Psychol. 70: 50–57.Google Scholar
  103. Rogosa, D. (1979). Causal models in longitudinal research: Rationale, formulation, and interpretation. In Nesselroade, J. R., and Baltes, P. B. (eds.),Longitudinal Research in the Study of Behavior and Development Academic Press, New York, pp. 263–302.Google Scholar
  104. Rosenberg, M. (1965).Society and the Adolescent Child Princeton University, Princeton.Google Scholar
  105. Rosenberg, M. (1979).Conceiving the Self Basic Books, New York.Google Scholar
  106. Rotter, J. B. (1966). Generalized expectancies for internal versus external control of reinforcement.Psychol. Monographs. 80 (whole no. 609).Google Scholar
  107. Ruble, D. N. (1983). The development of social comparison processes and their role in achievement-related self-socialization. In Higgins, E. T., Ruble, D., and Hartup, W. W. (eds.),Social Cognition and Social Development Cambridge University Press, New York, pp. 134–157.Google Scholar
  108. Scheirer, M. A., and Kraut, R. E. (1979). increasing educational achievement via self-concept change.Rev. Educat. Res. 49: 131–150.Google Scholar
  109. Schneider, B. H., Clegg, M. R., Byrne, B. M., Ledingham, J. E., and Crombie, G. (1989). Social relations of gifted children as a function of age and school program.J. Educat. Psychol. 81: 48–56.Google Scholar
  110. Schunk, D. H. (1985). Self-efficacy and classroom learning.Psychol. Schools 22: 208–223.Google Scholar
  111. Schunk, D. H. (1987).Domain Specific Measurement of Students' Self-Regulated Learning Processes, Paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the American Educational Research Association, Washington, D.C.Google Scholar
  112. Schunk, D. H. (1989). Self-efficacy and cognitive skill learning. In Ames, C., and Ames, R. (eds.),Research on Motivation in Education, Vol. 3, Academic Press, New York, pp. 13–44.Google Scholar
  113. Schwarzer, R., Jerusalem, J., and Lange, B. (1983).The Change of Self-Concept with Respect to Reference Groups in School, Paper presented at the 1983 Annual Meeting of the American Educational Research Association, Montreal.Google Scholar
  114. Sears, P. S. (1963).The Effect of Classroom Conditions on the Strength of Achievement Motive and Work Output of Elementary School Children,, Stanford University, Stanford, California.Google Scholar
  115. Shavelson, R. J., and Bolus, R. (1982). Self-concept: The interplay of theory and methods.J. Educat. Psychol. 74: 3–17.Google Scholar
  116. Shavelson, R. J., Hubner, J. J., and Stanton, G. C. (1976). Validation of construct interpretations.Rev. Educat. Res. 46: 407–441.Google Scholar
  117. Shavelson, R. J., and Marsh, H. W. (1986). On the structure of self-concept. In Schwarzer, R. (ed.),Anxiety and Cognitions. Lawrence Erlbaum, Hillsdale, New Jersey.Google Scholar
  118. Shibutani, T. (1961).Society and Personality Prentice-Hall, Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey.Google Scholar
  119. Shore, A. (1977).Outward Bound: A Reference Volume Outward Bound, Inc., Greenwich, Connecticut.Google Scholar
  120. Shrauger, J. S., and Schoeneman, T. J. (1979). Symbolic interactionist view of self-concept: Through the glass darkly.Psychol. Bull. 86: 549–573.Google Scholar
  121. Silon, E. L., and Harter, S. (1985). Assessment of perceived competence, motivational orientation, and anxiety in segregated and mainstreamed educable mentally retarded children.J. Educat. Psychol. 77: 217–230.Google Scholar
  122. Smith, M. L., Gabriel, R., Schott, J., and Padia, W. L. (1975).Evaluation of the Effects of Outward Bound Bureau of Educational Field Services, University of Colorado, Boulder, Colorado.Google Scholar
  123. Smith, R. E. (19). Effects of coping skills training on generalized self-efficacy and locus of control.J. Personal. Soc. Psychol. 56: 228–233.Google Scholar
  124. Soares, A. T., and Soares, L. M. (1979).The Affective Perception Inventory — Advanced Level ALSO, Trumbell.Google Scholar
  125. Soares, L. M., and Soares, A. T. (1982).Convergence and Discrimination in Academic Self-Concepts, paper presented at the 20th Congress of the International Association of Applied Psychology, Edinburgh, Scotland.Google Scholar
  126. Spence, J. T. (1984). Masculinity, femininity, and gender-related traits: A conceptual analysis and critique of current research. In Maehr, B. A., and Maehr, W. B. (eds.),Progress in Experimental Personality Research, Vol. 13, Academic Press, New York.Google Scholar
  127. Stipek, D. J. (1981). Children's perceptions of their own and their classmates' ability.J. Educat. Psychol. 73: 404–410.Google Scholar
  128. Stipek, D. J. (1984). The development of achievement motivation. In Ames, R. E., and Ames, C. (eds.),Research on Motivation in Education, Vol. 1, Academic Press, Orlando, Florida, pp. 145–174.Google Scholar
  129. Stipek, D. J., and Daniels, D. H. (1988). Declining perceptions of competence: A consequence of changes in the children in the educational environment.J. Educat. Psychol. 80: 352–356.Google Scholar
  130. Stipek, D. J., and MacIver, D. (1989). Developmental change in children's assessment of intellectual competence.Child Develop. 60: 521–538.Google Scholar
  131. Stipek, D. J., and Weisz, J. R. (1981). Perceived personal control and academic achievement.Rev. Educat. Res. 51: 101–137.Google Scholar
  132. Strang, L., Smith, M. D., and Rogers, C. M. (1978). Social comparison, multiple reference groups and the self-concepts of academically handicapped children before and after mainstreaming.J. Educat. Psychol. 70: 487–497.Google Scholar
  133. Taylor, M. C., and Hall, J. A. (1982). Psychological androgyny: A review and reformulation of theories, methods and conclusions.Psychol. Bull. 92: 347–366.Google Scholar
  134. Vernon, P. E. (1950).The Structure of Human Abilities Methuen, London.Google Scholar
  135. Weiner, B. (1979). A theory of motivation for some classroom experiences.J. Educat. Psychol. 71: 3–25.Google Scholar
  136. Weiner, B. (1980).Human Motivation Holt, Rinehart & Winston, New York.Google Scholar
  137. Wells, L. E., and Marwell, G. (1976).Self-Esteem: Its Conceptualization and Measurement Sage Publications, Beverly Hills, California.Google Scholar
  138. Werner, H. (1957). The concept of development from a comparative and organismic point of view. In Harris, D. B. (ed.),The Concept of Development University of Minnesota Press, Minneapolis, Minnesota.Google Scholar
  139. West, C. K., Fish, J. A., and Stevens, R. J. (1980). General self-concept, self-concept of academic ability, and school achievement: Implications for “causes” of self-concept.Austral. J. Educat. 24: 194–213.Google Scholar
  140. Whitley, B. E. (1983). Sex role orientation and self-esteem: A critical meta-analytic review.J. Personal. Soc. Psychol. 44: 765–778.Google Scholar
  141. Wylie, R. C. (1974).The Self-Concept rev. ed., Vol. 1, University of Nebraska Press, Lincoln, Nebraska.Google Scholar
  142. Wylie, R. C. (1979).The Self-Concept, Vol. 2, University of Nebraska Press, Lincoln, Nebraska.Google Scholar
  143. Zuckerman, M. (1979). Attribution of success and failure revisited, or: The motivational bias is alive and well in attribution theory.J. Personal. 47: 254–287.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Plenum Publishing Corporation 1990

Authors and Affiliations

  • Herbert W. Marsh
    • 1
  1. 1.School of EducationUniversity of Western Sydney, MacarthurCampbelltownAustralia

Personalised recommendations