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Archives of Virology

, Volume 136, Issue 3–4, pp 447–467 | Cite as

Arboviruses causing human disease in the Australasian zoogeographic region

  • J. S. Mackenzie
  • M. D. Lindsay
  • R. J. Coelen
  • A. K. Broom
  • R. A. Hall
  • D. W. Smith
Virology Division News

Summary

Over 65 arboviruses have been reported from countries in the Australasian zoogeographic region, but only a few have been implicated in human disease. These include the flaviviruses Murray Valley encephalitis (MVE), Kunjin (KUN), Kokobera (KOK), and dengue, particularly types 1 and 2; the alphaviruses Ross River (RR), Barmah Forest (BF), and Sindbis (SIN); and the bunyaviruses, Gan Gan and Trubanaman. In this paper recent epidemiological and clinical results pertaining to these viruses are reviewed, with major emphasis on MVE and RR viruses. The extensive early studies of Australian arboviruses have been reviewed by Doherty [49, 50], and their ecology and vectors more recently by Kay and Standfast [87]. In addition, the biology of MVE and KUN [113] and RR [87, 114] viruses have been the subjects of more detailed reviews.

The Australasian zoogeographic region is defined as countries east of the Wallace and Weber lines, two hypothetical lines in the Indo-Australian archipelago where the fauna of the Australasian and Oriental regions meet. Seroepidemiological studies of human arboviral infections have suggested that the Japanese encephalitis flavivirus and the chikungunya alphavirus occur only in the Oriental region, whereas the related MVE and RR viruses, respectively, are restricted to the Australasian region [85, 148]. Serological results from Wallacea, the zone between the Wallace and Weber lines, are not so clear-cut [85]. This review is therefore restricted to countries east of Wallacea, specifically New Guinea and Australia.

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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 1994

Authors and Affiliations

  • J. S. Mackenzie
    • 1
  • M. D. Lindsay
    • 1
  • R. J. Coelen
    • 1
  • A. K. Broom
    • 1
  • R. A. Hall
    • 1
  • D. W. Smith
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of MicrobiologyThe University of Western Australia, QU II Medical CentreNedlands
  2. 2.Division of Virology, State Health Laboratory ServiceQueen Elizabeth II Medical CentreNedlandsAustralia

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