Protoplasma

, Volume 166, Issue 1–2, pp 89–98

Specialized calciferous cells in the marine algaRhodogorgon carriebowensis and their implications for models of red algal calcification

  • C. M. Pueschel
  • H. H. Eichelberger
  • H. N. Trick
Article

Summary

Calcification inRhodogorgon carriebowensis J. Norris et Bucher was associated with a particular cell type in the cortex. Calciferous cells were 4–6 times the length of cortical assimilatory cells. The distal two-thirds of the calcifying cell was invested with a thick wall that stained with periodic acid Schiff. Thick fibrils formed a reticulum and surrounded grains of calcium carbonate that ranged in shape from rhombohedral to subspherical and were up to 200 nm in greatest dimension. The proximal third of the cell was a tapering uncalcified stalk. The narrow base of the cell was attached to the subtending cell of the fascicle by a normal septum with a pit plug. The cell within the calcified wall matrix was usually flattened and had a very small volume. Cellular contents were dense; even when organelles could be discerned, they could not be identified. X-ray microanalysis revealed that other elements commonly found mixed with calcium carbonate are virtually absent from mineral deposits inR. carriebowensis, but electron diffraction study showed d-spacings that varied from those of pure calcite. Current models of red algal calcification are discussed in light of the findings on this alga.

Keywords

Calcification Calcium carbonate Rhodogorgon Red algae 

Abbreviations

CaCO3

calcium carbonate

DIG

differential interference contrast

PAS

periodic acid Schiff

SEM

scanning electron microscopy

TEM

transmission electron microscopy

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Berman A, Addadi L, Kvick A, Leiserowitz L, Nelson M, Weiner S (1990) Intercalation of sea urchin proteins in calcite: study of a crystalline composite material. Science 250: 664–667Google Scholar
  2. Borowitzka MA (1982 a) Mechanisms in algal calcification. Prog Phycol Res 1: 137–177Google Scholar
  3. Borowitzka MA (1982 b) Morphological and cytological aspects of algal calcification. Int Rev Cytol 74: 127–162Google Scholar
  4. — (1984) Calcification in aquatic plants. Plant Cell Environ 7: 457–466Google Scholar
  5. —, Larkum AWD (1976) Calcification in the green algaHalimeda III. The sources of inorganic carbon for photosynthesis and a model of the mechanism of calcification. J Exp Bot 27: 879–893Google Scholar
  6. — —, Nockolds CE (1974) A scanning electron microscope study of the structure and organization of the calcium carbonate deposits of algae. Phycologia 13: 195–203Google Scholar
  7. Cabioch J, Giraud G (1986) Structural aspects of biomineralization in the coralline algae (calcified Rhodophyceae). In: Leadbeater BSC, Reading R (eds) Biomineralization in lower plants and animals. Clarendon, Oxford, pp 141–156Google Scholar
  8. Chave KE (1954) Aspects of the biogeochemistry of magnesium 1. Calcareous marine organisms. J Geol 62: 266–283Google Scholar
  9. —, Wheeler BD Jr (1965) Mineralogie changes during growth in the red alga,Clathromorphum compactun. Science 147: 621Google Scholar
  10. Digby PSB (1977) Photosynthesis and respiration in the coralline algae,Clathromorphum circumscriptum andCorallina officinalis and the metabolic basis of calcification. J Mar Biol Assoc UK 57: 1111–1124Google Scholar
  11. Flajs G (1977) Die Ultrastrukturen des Kalkalgenskeletts. Palaeontographica [B] 160: 69–128Google Scholar
  12. Giraud G, Cabioch J (1979) Ultrastructure and elaboration of calcified cell-walls in the coralline algae (Rhodophyta, Cryptonemiales). Biol Cell 36: 81–86Google Scholar
  13. La Velle JM (1979) Translocation inCalliarthron tuberculosum and its role in the light-enhancement of calcification. Mar Biol 55: 37–44Google Scholar
  14. Moberly R Jr (1968) Composition of magnesian calcites of algae and pelecypods by electron microprobe analysis. Sedimentology 11: 61–82Google Scholar
  15. Nation JL (1983) A new method using hexamethyldisilazane for preparation of soft insect tissues for scanning electron microscopy. Stain Technol 58: 347–351Google Scholar
  16. Norris JN, Bucher KE (1989)Rhodogorgon, an anamolous new red algal genus from the Caribbean Sea. Proc Biol Soc Wash 102: 1050–1066Google Scholar
  17. Pearse VB (1972) Radioisotopic study of calcification in the articulated coralline algaBossiella orbigniana. J Phycol 8: 88–97Google Scholar
  18. Pentecost A (1980) Calcification in plants. Int Rev Cytol 62: 1–27Google Scholar
  19. — (1985) Photosynthetic plants as intermediary agents between environmental HCO3 and carbonate deposition. In: Lucas WJ, Berry JA (eds) Inorganic carbon uptake by aquatic photosynthetic organisms. American Society of Plant Physiologists, Rockville, pp 459–480Google Scholar
  20. Pobeguin T (1954) Contribution a l'étude des carbonates de calcium précipitation du calcaire par les végétaux comparaison avec le monde animal. Ann Sci Nat Bot 11: 29–109Google Scholar
  21. Pueschel CM, Trick HN, Norris JN (1992) Fine structure of the phylogenetically important marine algaRhodogorgon carriebowensis (Rhodophyta, Batrachospermales?). Protoplasma 166: 78–88Google Scholar
  22. Silva PC, Johansen HW (1986) A reappraisal of the order Corallinales (Rhodophyceae). Br Phycol J 21: 245–254Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 1992

Authors and Affiliations

  • C. M. Pueschel
    • 1
  • H. H. Eichelberger
    • 1
  • H. N. Trick
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Biological SciencesState University of New York at BinghamtonBinghamtonUSA

Personalised recommendations