Educational Psychology Review

, Volume 1, Issue 4, pp 279–308

Feedback in written instruction: The place of response certitude

  • Raymond W. Kulhavy
  • William A. Stock

DOI: 10.1007/BF01320096

Cite this article as:
Kulhavy, R.W. & Stock, W.A. Educ Psychol Rev (1989) 1: 279. doi:10.1007/BF01320096


This paper reviews written feedback from an information-processing perspective. The first section discusses the question of feedback as a reinforcer, and describes the feedback paradigm used as a conceptual guide for the following sections. In the second section we evaluate research on the form and content of feedback. In the last section, a model is developed that applies concepts from servocontrol theory to the feedback sequence. Finally, we report three experiments which support the major predictions of the control model.

Key Words

feedback instruction learning cognition 

Copyright information

© Plenum Publishing Corporation 1989

Authors and Affiliations

  • Raymond W. Kulhavy
    • 1
  • William A. Stock
    • 1
  1. 1.Instructional Science Research FacilityArizona State UniversityTempe

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