Marine Biology

, Volume 109, Issue 3, pp 417–425 | Cite as

Nutritional and related experiments on laboratory maintenance of three species of symbiont-bearing, large foraminifera

  • J. J. Lee
  • K. Sang
  • B. ter Kuile
  • E. Strauss
  • P. J. Lee
  • W. W. FaberJr.


Factors were examined that affect survival and growth of two common species of large foraminifera from the Red Sea,Amphisorus hemprichii Ehrenberg andAmphistegina lobifera Larsen, 1976. The former is host for dinoflagellate and the latter for diatom zooxanthellae. Experimental conditions were modeled on conditions at 25 m during spring at Wadi Taba, Gulf of Elat, Israel, the season and site where the experimental organisms were collected between 1983 and 1988. The two species responded quite differently in nutritional experiments.A. hemprichii grew, on average, 0.270 mm in diameter in 3 mo on a diet ofNitzschia subcommunis Hustedt,Chlorella sp. (clone AT) orCylindrotheca closterium Rabenhorst isolated from their native habitat. Unfed controls did not grow. In contrast, unfed populations ofA. lobifera grew as well or better than those that were fed unialgal diets. Growth of both species was enhanced on particular mixed algal diets. Both species required photosynthetically active symbionts. Even when fed weekly and supplied with nutrients, neither species survived in the dark. All individuals ofA. hemprichii died after 8 wk incubation in the dark;A. lobifera survived longer, but all were dead by 13 wk. The highest growth rate ofA. hemprichii (0.037 mm wk−1) was obtained when they were fed, the medium was enriched, and the medium was changed weekly. All other conditions being the same, growth rate dropped to 0.009 mm wk−1 when the medium was changed every 3 wk. In contrast,A. lobifera grew fastest when the medium was changed every 3 wk. Food or enrichment with nitrate or phosphate did not stimulate growth (0.03 mm wk−1) over that of the controls. Specimens ofMarginopora kudakajimensis Gudmundsson from Japan, another dinoflagellate-bearing species, were also tested. They grew best (0.02 mm wk−1) when cultured in light, in media enriched with nitrate and phosphate changed weekly, and fed. All three species withdrew nitrate and phosphate from the medium in chemostat experiments.


Foraminifera Dinoflagellate Chlorella Large Foraminifera Experimental Organism 
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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 1991

Authors and Affiliations

  • J. J. Lee
    • 1
  • K. Sang
    • 1
  • B. ter Kuile
    • 2
  • E. Strauss
    • 1
  • P. J. Lee
    • 1
  • W. W. FaberJr.
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of BiologyCity College of New YorkNew YorkUSA
  2. 2.H. Steinitz Marine Biological Laboratory Inter University Institute of ElatElatIsrael

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