Vegetation History and Archaeobotany

, Volume 9, Issue 4, pp 189–204

Palaeoecological investigations towards the reconstruction of the history of forest clearances and coastal heathlands in south-western Norway

Article

Abstract

Palynological data collected over a period of 60 years have been compiled and re-interpreted in order to reveal the patterns of deforestation and health establishment in the south-western Norwegian coastal heathland. This heathland area has been divided into four sub-regions based on topography, bedrock and drift cover. The palynological investigations are from sites with pollen source areas of different sizes. The palynological signals are interpreted in terms of models that suggest an abrupt, gradual or stepwise deforestation which can be explained by terms of different pollen source areas. The deforestation seems to have been metachronous, leading to a regional mosaic pattern of different vegetation types. The deforestation process spanned more than 3600 calendar years (4000-400 B.C.), with three pronounced clearance periods at 4000-3600 B.C. (Mesolithic/Early Neolithic transition), 2500-2200 B.C. (Middle Neolithic II/Early Late Neolithic transition), and 1900-1400 B.C. (Late Neolithic to Bronze Age period II). The expansion of heathland has also been metachronous and took place over a period of ca. 4000 years between 4000-200 B.C., but was mainly completed by the end of the Bronze Age. Regional differences in the chronology of deforestation and heathland establishment are discussed. Deforestation with subsequent heathland expansion can best be explained in terms of the interaction between land-use history, topography and edaphic conditions under climatic conditions that favoured heathland development.

Key words

Western Norway Deforestation Heathland Farming history Vegetation history 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Aaby B (1988) The cultural landscape as reflected in percentage and influx pollen diagrams from two Danish ombrotrophic mires. In: Birks HH, Birks HJB, Kaland PE, Moe D (eds) The cultural landscape — past, present and future. Cambridge University Press. Cambridge, pp 209–228Google Scholar
  2. Aaby B (1994) NAP percentages as an expression of cleared areas. In: Frenzel B (ed) Evaluation of land surfaces cleared from forests in the Roman Iron Age and the time of migrating German tribes based on regional pollen diagrams. Paläoklimaforschung 12, pp 13–28Google Scholar
  3. Aaby B, Andersen ST (1986) Pollenanalytiske undersøgelser i Abkær mose, Sønderjylland og Grevindens mose, Næsbyholm Storskov [Pollen analytical investigations in the bogs of Abkær, southern Jylland and Grevindens mose, Næsbyholm Storskov]. Fredningsstyrelsen Rapp B 10: 1–28, ill.Google Scholar
  4. Aas B, Faarlund T (1988) Post-glacial forest limits in central south Norwegian mountains. Radiocarbon datings of subfossil pine and birch specimens. Norsk Geogr Tidsskr 42: 25–61Google Scholar
  5. Andersen ST (1988) Pollen spectra from the double passage-grave, Klekkendehøj, on Møn. J Dan Archaeol 7: 77–92Google Scholar
  6. Andersen ST (1995) Pollen analytical investigations of barrows from the Funnel Beaker and Single Grave cultures in the Vroue area, West Jutland, Denmark. J Dan Archaeol 12: 107–132Google Scholar
  7. Anderson DE, Binney HA, Smith MA (1998) Evidence for abrupt climatic change in northern Scotland between 3900 and 3500 calendar years B.P. Holocene 8: 97–103Google Scholar
  8. Bakka E (1993) Kulturtilhøve og regionale skilnader i vestnorsk, bronsealder [Cultural conditions and regional differences in the Bronze Age in western Norway] (with German summary). Historical Museum, Univ Bergen, Norway. Arkeol Skr 7: 90–117Google Scholar
  9. Bakka E, Kaland PE (1971) Early farming in Hordaland, Western Norway Problems and approaches in archaeology and pollen analysis. Norw Archaeol Rev 4: 1–35Google Scholar
  10. Bang-Andersen S (1988) Fortid og framtid i Gjedlestadvika [The past and future in Gjedlestadvika]. Museum of Archaeology, Stavanger, Oppdragsrapport 1988-1: 1–85Google Scholar
  11. Birkeland T (1981) The geology of Jæren and adjacent districts. A contribution to the Caledonian nappe tectonics of Rogaland, southwest Norway. Norsk Geol Tidsskr 61: 213–235Google Scholar
  12. Birks HJB (1996) Great Britain-Scotland. In: Berglund BE, Birks HJB, Ralska-Jasiewiczowa M, Wright HE (eds) Palaeological events during the last 15 000 years: Regional syntheses of palaeoecological studies of lakes and mires in Europe. Wiley, Chichester, pp 95–143Google Scholar
  13. Birks HJB, Madsen BJ (1979) Flandrian vegetational history of little Loch Roag, Isle of Lewis, Scotland. J Ecol 67: 825–842Google Scholar
  14. Bjarke Ballin T, Lass Jensen O (1995) The Farsund project-Stone Age sites at Lista (in Norwegian with English summary). Univ Oldsaksamling, Univ Oslo, Norway. Varia 29: 1–263Google Scholar
  15. Bradshaw RHW (1981) Modern pollen representation factors for woods in south-east England. J Ecol 69: 45–70Google Scholar
  16. Bunting MJ (1996) The development of heathland in Orkney, Scotland: pollen records from Loch of Knitchen (Rousay) and Loch of Torness (Hoy). Holocene 6: 193–212Google Scholar
  17. Calcote R (1995) Pollen source area and pollen productivity: evidence from forest hollows. J Ecol 83: 591–602Google Scholar
  18. Dahl E, Elven R, Moen A, Skogen A (1986) Vegetasjonsregionkart over Norge 1∶1500 000 [Vegetation regions of Norway 1∶1500 000]. Nasjonalatlas for Norge [National Atlas of Norway]. Norwegian Mapping Authority, HønefossGoogle Scholar
  19. Danielsen R (1986) Vegetasjonshistorie i Solaviksområdet, Sola kommune, Rogaland med særlig vekt på Jernalder og Middelalder [Vegetation history at Solavika Bay, Sola, Rogaland with particular reference to the Iron Age and Medieval period]. Internal report, Museum of Archaeology, Stavanger, pp 10, 3 figuresGoogle Scholar
  20. Edwards KJ (1991) Spatial scale and palynology: a commentary on Bradshaw. In: Harris DR, Thomas KD (eds) Modelling Ecological Change. Institute of Archaeology. University College, London, pp 53–59Google Scholar
  21. Falkum T (1982) Geologisk kart over Norge, bergrunnskart MANDAL-1∶250 000 [Geological map of Norway, bedrock map MANDAL-1∶250 000]. Norges Geol UndersGoogle Scholar
  22. Fremstad E, Aarrestad PA, Skogen A (1991) Coastal heaths in western Norway and Trøndelag. A habitat and vegetation type that is threatened (Norwegian with English summary). NINA-Utredning 29: 1–172Google Scholar
  23. Fremstad E, Kvenild L (1993) Poor heath vegetation in Norway; a distribution map (Norwegian with English summary). NINA Oppdragsmelding 188: 1–17Google Scholar
  24. Fægri K (1940) Quartärgeologische Untersuchungen im westlichen Norwegen. II. Zur spätquartären Geschichte Jærens. Bergen Mus Årbok 1939–40, Naturv Ser 7: 1–210Google Scholar
  25. Fægri K (1941) Myrfunne tresaker fra Bø i Nærbø. II. Geologisk datering [Finds of wooden artefacts in bogs from Bø in Nærbø. II. Geological dating]. Stavanger Mus Årbok 50: 22–30Google Scholar
  26. Fægri K (1944a) On the introduction of agriculture in western Norway. Geol Fören Stockh Förh 66: 449–462Google Scholar
  27. Fægri K (1944b) Studies on the Pleistocene of western Norway. III Bømlo. Bergen Mus Årbog 1943, Naturv Ser 8: 1–100Google Scholar
  28. Gimingham CH (1977) The status of pinewoods in British ecosystems. In: Bunce RJ, Jeffers JNR (eds) Native Pinewoods of Scotland. Institute of Terrestrial Ecology, Cambridge, pp. 1–4Google Scholar
  29. Gramstad Eide F (1982) Vegetasjonshistoriske undersøkelser på Valborgmyra, Kårstø, Tysvær in Rogaland, Del III [Vegetation historical investigations at Kårstø, Tysvær, Rogaland] (in Norwegian with English summary). Bot Inst, Univ Bergen, Norway, Rapp 23: 1–45Google Scholar
  30. Griffin K, Høeg H (1990) Lundetjern. Natur- og kulturhistorie [Lundetjern. Its natural and cultural history]. Ilmenitten 38: 36–39Google Scholar
  31. Gunnarsdottir H (1997) Rapport fra vegetasjonshistoriske undersøkelser i Trolltjern, Time kommune, og fra felt med rydningsrøyser på Skjæveland gnr. 52 bnr. 7, Sandnes kommune, Rogaland [Report on the vegetation historical investigations at Trolltjern, Time, and from an area with clearance cairns at Skjæveland farm no 52/7, Sandnes]. Internal report. Museum of Archaeology, Stavanger, pp 48, 4 diagramsGoogle Scholar
  32. Hafsten U (1950) Pollenanalytisk datering (Myrfunn av horn fra Taksdal i Time på Jæren) [Pollen analytical dating (Finds of antlers in a bog at Taksdal in Time, Jæren]. Stavanger Mus Årbok 60: 42–58Google Scholar
  33. Hemdorff O (1998) Hus fra eldste bronsealder funnet på Talgje [Houses from the Early Bronze Age found at Talgje]. Fra Haug Heidni 3: 11–13Google Scholar
  34. Hemdorff O, Sageidet B, Soltvedt E-C (in print) Offersteder tidlig jordbruk og gravrøyser. IVAR-prosjektet. Arkeologi og naturvitenskap i en ny vannledningstrasé på Jæren [Ritual offer sites, early farming and grave cairns. The IVAR-project. Archaeology and natural science in the roadway for a new waterpipe at Jæren] (with English summary). AmS-Varia 36Google Scholar
  35. Hjeltnes A (1997) Overvåking av kystlynghei. Sluttrapport. Delprosjektav: Kartlegging av skader og skadeårsaker på røsslyng og forandringer i vegetasjonen i kystlyngheia på Sørvestlandet [Monitoring of coastal healths. Final report. Subproject: Mapping of damage and causes of damage to heather and changes in the vegetation in south-west Norway]. Telemarksforskning, Bø. Rapp 129: 1–65Google Scholar
  36. Hobbs RJ, Gimingham CH (1987) Vegetation, fire and herbivore interaction in heathland. Advances in Ecological Research 16: 87–173Google Scholar
  37. Holmsen G (1923) Vestkystens skoger i forhistorisk tid [The forests along the western Norwegian coast in prehistoric time]. Med fra det norske myrselskap 21: 1–117Google Scholar
  38. Høeg HI (1984) En pollenanalytisk undersøkelse fra Forsand i Rogaland [A pollen analytical investigation from Forsand, Rogaland]. Internal report. Museum of Archaeology, Stavanger, 25 pp.Google Scholar
  39. Høeg HI (1995) pollenanalyse — Lista [Pollen analysis — Lista]. In: Bjarke Ballin TB, Lass Jensen O (eds) Farsundprosjektet —Steinalderbopladser på Lista [The Farsund project—Stone Age sites at Lista]. Varia 29: 268–323Google Scholar
  40. Høeg HI (1999) Pollenanalytiske undersøkelser i Rogaland og Ersdal i Vest-Agder [Pollen analytical investigations in Rogaland and in Ersdal in Vest-Agder]. In: Selsing L. Lillehammer G (eds) Museumslandskap. Artikkelsamling til Kerstin Griffin på 60-arsdagen [Museum landscape. A collection of papers for the 60th birthday of Kerstin Griffin]. AmS-Rapport 12A: 145–226Google Scholar
  41. Hogestøl M (1995) Archaeological studies in the municipality of Rennesøy. Rogaland, south-west Norway (in Norwegian with English summary). AmS-Varia 23: 1–270Google Scholar
  42. Jackson ST (1994) Pollen and spores in Quaternary lake sediments as sensors of vegetation composition: Theoretical models and empiric evidence. In: Traverse A (ed) Sedimentation of organic particles. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, pp 253–286Google Scholar
  43. Jackson ST, Wong A (1994) Using forest patchiness to determine pollen source areas of closed canopy pollen assemblages. J Ecol 82: 89–99Google Scholar
  44. Jacobson GL, Bradshaw RHW (1981) The selection of sites for paleovegetational studies. Quat Res 16: 80–96Google Scholar
  45. Jóhansen J (1985) Studies in the vegetation history of the Faroe and Shetland Islands. Ann Soc Scien Færoensis Suppl XI: 1–117Google Scholar
  46. Jóhansen J (1996) Faroe Islands. In: Berglund BE, Birks HJB, Ralska-Jasiewiczowa M, Wright HE (eds) Palaeoecological events during the last 15 000 years: regional syntheses of palaeoecological studies of lakes and mires in Europe. Wiley. Chichester, pp 145–152Google Scholar
  47. Jóhansen Ø (1986) Frühe Metallkultur in Agder (in Norwegian with German summary). Univ Oldsaksamling Skr, Ny rekke 8: 1–200Google Scholar
  48. Jonassen H (1950) Recent pollen sedimentation and Jutland heath diagrams. Dan Bot Arkiv 13: 1–168Google Scholar
  49. Kaland PE (1974) “Ble lyngheiene skapt av fimbulvinter eller ved menneskeverk?” [“Were the coastal heaths a result of a Fimbul winter or the activity of man?”]. Forskningsnytt 19/4: 7–14Google Scholar
  50. Kaland PE (1979) Landskapsutvikling og bosettingshistorie i Nordhordalands lyngheiområde [Landscape development and settlement history in the coastal heath section in Nordhordaland] In: Fladby R, Sandnes J (eds) På leiting etter den eldste gården [Scarching for the oldest farm]. Univ forlaget, Oslo, pp 41–70Google Scholar
  51. Kaland PE (1986) The origin and managment of Norwegian coastal heaths as reflected by pollen analysis. In: Behre KE (ed) Anthropogenic indicators in pollen diagrams, Balkema, Rotterdam, pp 19–36Google Scholar
  52. Klemsdal T (1982) Coastal classification and the coast of Norway. Norsk geogr Tidskr 36: 129–152Google Scholar
  53. Lid J, Lid DT (1994) Norsk Flora [The flora of Norway], 6th edn. Det Norske Samlaget. OsloGoogle Scholar
  54. Lillehammer G (1994) Forvaltning i et feministisk perspektiv [Management seen from a feministic perspective]. KAN, Kvinner i arkeologi i Norge 17–18: 136–174Google Scholar
  55. Lillehammer G (1996) Kontakt-konflikt: Kulturminnevern og kulturforståelse, analyse av utmarksmiljø i Hå kommune i Rogaland [Contact-conflict: cultural heritage and cultural perception, analyses of outlying fields in Hå municipality in Rogaland]. Frå Haug Heidni 4: 30Google Scholar
  56. Lindblom I (1982) Ecology and economy of Southern Jæren in the Late Neolithic. Part I. Rugland- a Late Neolithic Site in Jæren, Southwest Norway. AmS-Skrifter 9: 15–31Google Scholar
  57. Lindblom I, Simonsen A, Solheim L (1997) Husøy-palaeoecology and prehistory of a small island on the SW coast of Norway. AmS-Varia 27: 1–38Google Scholar
  58. Løken T (1998) House types and social differentiation of the Bronze Age settlement at Forsandmoen, Rogaland, South-west Norway (in Norwegian with English summary). AmS-Varia 33: 107–121Google Scholar
  59. Midtbø I (1995) En vegetasjonshistorisk studie avCladium mariscus-lokaliteten på Bømlo, Hordaland [A vegetation historical investigation of theCladium mariscus locality at Bømlo, Hordaland] Thesis (unpublished), Botanical Institute, University of Bergen, NorwayGoogle Scholar
  60. Midtbø I (1999) Et pollendiagram fraCladium mariscus-lokaliteten på Bømlo, Hordaland [A pollen diagram from theCladium mariscus locality on Bømlo, Hordaland). In: Selsing L, Lillehammer G (eds) Museumslandskap. Artikkelsamling til Kerstin Griffin på 60-årsdagen (Museum landscape. Papers to the 60th birthday of Kerstin Griffin). AmS-Rapport 12A: 99–112Google Scholar
  61. Midtbø I (2000) Naturhistoriske undersøkelser i forbindelse med Åsgardundersøkelsen — Vegetasjonsutvikling og strandforskyvning [Vegetation historical investigations in connection with the Åsgard investigation-vegetation history and shoreline displacement]. In: Løken (ed) Åsgard — Natur-og kulturhistoriske undersøkelser langs en gassrør-trasé i Karmøy og Tysvær, Rogaland [Åsgard — investigations of the natural and cultural history along a gas pipeline alignment in Karmøy and Tysvær, Rogaland]. AmS-Rapport 14: 17–52Google Scholar
  62. Moen A (1987) The regional vegetation of Norway: that of Central Norway in particular. Norsk geogr Tidsskr 41: 179–226Google Scholar
  63. Moen A (1999) National Atlas of Norway. Vegetation. Norw Mapping Authority, HønefossGoogle Scholar
  64. Nielsen PO (1993) The Neolithic. In: Hvass S, Storgaard B (eds) Digging into the past. Aarhus Universitetsforlag. pp 84–87Google Scholar
  65. Nordenborg Myhre L (1998) Historier fra en annen virkelighet. Fortellinger om bronsealderen ved Karmsundet [Stories from another world. Stories about the Bronze Age at Karmsundet]. AmS-Småtrykk 46: 1–220Google Scholar
  66. Nærøy AJ (1987) Redskapstradisjon i Hordaland fra 5500 til 4000 før nåtid-en lokalkronologisk studie [Tools used in Hordaland from 5500 to 4000 B.P. — a local chronological study], Thesis (unpublished), Historical Museum. University of Bergen. NorwayGoogle Scholar
  67. Nærøy AJ (1993) Chronological and technological changes in western Norway 6000-3800 BP. Acta Archaeol 63: 77–95Google Scholar
  68. Odgaard BV (1992) The fire history of Danish heathland areas as reflected by pollen and charred particles in lake sediments. Holocene 2: 218–226Google Scholar
  69. Odgaard BV (1994) The Holocene vegetation history of northern West Jutland, Denmark. Opera Bot 123: 1–171Google Scholar
  70. Odgaard BV, Rostholm H (1987) A single grave barrow at Harreskov, Jutland. J Dan Archaeol 6: 87–100Google Scholar
  71. Paus Aa (1982) Vegetasjonshistoriske undersøkelser i Sandvikvatn, Kårstø, Tysvær i Rogaland. Del II [Vegetation historical investigations at Sandvikvatn. Kårstø, Tysvær in Rogaland. Part II]. In: Gramstad Eide F, Paus Aa (eds) Vegetasjonshistoriske underøkelser på Kårstø, Tysvær kommune, Rogaland [Vegetation historical investigations at Kårstø, Tysvær municipality, Rogaland] (in Norwegian with English summary). Bot Inst, Univ Bergen, Norway, Rapp 23: 1–84Google Scholar
  72. Paus Aa (1990) Late Weichselian and early Holocene vegetation, climate, and floral migration at Utsira, North-Rogaland, southwestern Norway. Norsk Geol Tidsskr 70: 135–152Google Scholar
  73. Peglar S (1979) A radiocarbon-dated pollen diagram from Loch Winless. Caithness, north-east Scotland. New Phytol 82: 245–263Google Scholar
  74. Petersen EB (1993) The Late Palaeolithic and the Mesolithic. In: Hvass S, Storgaard B, (eds) Digging into the past. Aarhus Universitetsforlag. Aarhus, pp 46–49Google Scholar
  75. Prentice IC (1985) Pollen representation, source area and basin size: Toward a unified theory of pollen analysis. Quat Res 23: 76–86Google Scholar
  76. Prescott C (1996) Was there really a Neolithic in Norway. Antiquity 70: 77–87Google Scholar
  77. Prøsch-Danielsen L (1993a) Studies on the natural history, Rennesøy and Finnøy municipalities. Rogaland, South-West Norway (Norwegian with English summary). AmS-Varia 22: 1–119Google Scholar
  78. Prøsch-Danielsen L (1993b) Prehistoric agriculture revealed by pollen analysis, plough marks and sediment studies at Sola, south-western Norway. Veget Hist Archaeobot 2: 233–244Google Scholar
  79. Prøsch-Danielsen L (1996a) Vegetation history and human impact during the last 11 500 years at Lista, the southernmost part of Norway. Based primarily on Professor Ulf Hafsten's material and diary from 1955–1957. Norsk geogr Tidsskr 50: 85–99Google Scholar
  80. Prøsch-Danielsen L (1996b) Vegetasjonshistorisk undersøkelse av felt med rydningsrøyser på Forsand gnr. 41 bnr.6, Forsand i Rogaland [Vegetation historical investigation of an area with clearance cairs at Forsand farm no 41,6, Forsand, Rogaland]. NIKU Oppdragsmeld 10: 1–31Google Scholar
  81. Prøsch-Danielsen L (1997) New light on the Holocene shore displacement curve on Lista, the southermost part of Norway. Based primarily on Professor Ulf Hafsten's material from 1955–1957 and 1966. Norks geogr Tidsskr 51 83–101Google Scholar
  82. Prøsch-Danielsen L (1999) Hanalandstjønna — “midt i periferien” [Hanalandstjønna — “in the middle of the periphery”]. Frå Haug Heidni 3: 37–40Google Scholar
  83. Prøsch-Danielsen L, Simonsen A (2000) The deforestation patterns and the establishment of the coastal heathland of south-western Norway. AmS-Skrifter 15: 1–53Google Scholar
  84. Prøsch-Danielsen L, Øvstedal DO (1994) Vegetation history of Molinia heaths in Tysvær, Rogaland, western Norway. Nord J Bot 14: 557–568Google Scholar
  85. Selsing L (1984) Subrecent sandflukt på Jæren, SV-Norge [Subrecent aeolian activity in Jæren, SW-Norway]. Abstract 16e Nordiske Geologiske Vintermötet Stockholm 1984. Med Stockh Univ. Geol Inst 255: 198Google Scholar
  86. Selsing L, Mejdahl V (1994) Aeolian stratigraphy and thermoluminescence dating of sediments of late Holocene age from Sola, southwest Norway. Boreas 23: 1–13Google Scholar
  87. Semb G, Nedkvitne K (1956) Soil and vegetation relationships mainly on the heathlands of Jæren, Norway (in Norwegian with English summary). Meld Norges Landbrukshøgskule 36: 1–39Google Scholar
  88. Sigmond EMD, Gustavsson M, Roberts D (1984) Berggrunnskart over Norge [Bedrock map of Norway]. Norges Geol Unders. TrondheimGoogle Scholar
  89. Simonsen A (1969) Subrecent vegetation development at “Øyren” south of Stavanger. A pollen diagram from a former lagune once used as a harbour (in Norwegian with English summary). Stavanger Mus Årbok 79: 39–48Google Scholar
  90. Simonsen A (1971) Breiavatn og Stavangers eldste historie [The history of Lake Breiavatn and the city of Stavanger]. Stavanger Mus Arbok 81: 39–49Google Scholar
  91. Simonsen A (1972) Da bøndene kom til Gjedlestadvika [When the farmers came to Gjedlestadvika]. Frå Haug Heidni 4: 235–240Google Scholar
  92. Skar Christiansen B (1985) Salthellerbopladsen — belyst ved sitecatchmentanalyse [The Saltheller site — as shown by sitecatchment analysis]. Thesis (unpublished), University of Århus, ÅrhusGoogle Scholar
  93. Skjjølsvold A (1977) The Slettabø site. A contribution to the problem of inter-relations between the hunters and the farmers during the Neolithic and Bronze Age (in Norwegian with English summary). AmS-Skrifter 2: 1–380Google Scholar
  94. Slomann W (1971) Bosetning og bosetningsproblemer i Sydvest-Norge i eldre jernalder [Settlement and settlement problems in southwest Norway in Early Iron Age]. Stavanger Mus Årbok 81: 5–38Google Scholar
  95. Solberg B (1993) Western Norway in the Late Neolithic and Early Bronze Age. Can loose finds contribute to our understanding of demography and social stratification? Hist Mus, Univ Bergen. Arkeol Skr 7: 118–138Google Scholar
  96. Steinnes A (1988) Conservation and management of coastal heaths in Rogaland [in Norwegian with English summary. Økoforsk rapport 1988/11: 1–119Google Scholar
  97. Stuiver M, Reimer PJ (1986) A computer program for radiocarbon age calibration. Radiocarbon 28: 1022–1030Google Scholar
  98. Sugita S (1994) Pollen representation of vegetation in Quaternary sediments: theory and method in patchy vegetation. J Ecol 82: 881–897Google Scholar
  99. Sugita S, Gaillard MJ, Broström A (1999) Landscape openness and pollen records: a simulation approach. Holocene 9: 409–421Google Scholar
  100. Sundve E (1977) Undersøkelserav vegetasjonssyklus, suksesjonstendenser og jordsmonn i lyngmar [Investigations of vegetation cycles, succesion tendensies and soil in heaths]. Thesis (unpublished). University of Bergen, NorwayGoogle Scholar
  101. Thoresen MK (1990) Kvartærgeologisk kart over Norge. Tema: Jordarter. M. 1∶1 mill. [Quaternary map of Norway. Subject: subsoil]. Norges Geol UndersGoogle Scholar
  102. Ugland T (1984) Rapport pollenanalyser lok. Sola strandhotell [Report on the pollen analytical studies at Sola beach hotel]. Internal report, Museum of Archaeology, StavangerGoogle Scholar
  103. Øvstedal DO (1985) The vegetation of Lindås and Austrheim, western Norway. Phytocoenol 13: 323–449Google Scholar
  104. Vankilde H, Rahbek U, Rasmussen KL (1996) Radiocarbon dating and the chronology of Bronze Age southern Scandinavia. Acta Archaeo 67: 183–198Google Scholar
  105. Waaler P (1997) En vegetasjonshistorisk undersøkelseav kulturlandskapet på Lygra, Nordhordland [A vegetation historical investigation of the cultural landscape at Lygra, Nordhordland]. Thesis (unpublished). University of Bergen, NorwayGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 2000

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Museum of Archaeology, StavangerNational Research Centre for Palaeostudies and ConservationStavangerNorway
  2. 2.Stavanger University CollegeStavangerNorway

Personalised recommendations