, Volume 213, Issue 3–4, pp 176–183 | Cite as

Paramecium calkinsi andP. putrinum (Ciliophora, Protista) harboring alpha-subgroup bacteria in the cytoplasm

  • S. I. FokinEmail author
  • E. V. Sabaneyeva
  • O. N. Borkhsenious
  • M. Schweikert
  • H. -D. Görtz
Original Papers


New intracellular bacteria were detected in the cytoplasm ofParamecium calkinsi andP. putrinum. Some of the bacteria were not evenly distributed in the cytoplasm of the host but were found in the center of the cell, eventually near the nuclei, but not in the cortex area, whereas another species was found in the cortex area. These peculiarities of intracellular bacteria localization in the host suggest that the conditions in various parts of the cytoplasm favor bacterial maintenance to different extent. Due to the results obtained by transmission electron microscopy and in situ hybridization using appropriate oligonucleotide probes, the bacteria, three or possibly four species, are Gram-negative and belong to the alpha-subgroup of proteobacteria. Bacteria from one stock ofP. calkinsi were found to be infectious for bacteria-free cells ofP. calkinsi andP. nephridiatum.


Cytoplasm Infection Fluorescence in situ hybridization Intracellular bacteria Paramecium calkinsi Paramecium putrinum 


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 2000

Authors and Affiliations

  • S. I. Fokin
    • 1
    Email author
  • E. V. Sabaneyeva
    • 1
  • O. N. Borkhsenious
    • 2
  • M. Schweikert
    • 3
  • H. -D. Görtz
    • 3
  1. 1.Biological InstituteSt. Petersburg State UniversitySt. PetersburgRussia
  2. 2.Department of Biological ScienceLouisiana State UniversityBaton Rouge
  3. 3.Biological InstituteUniversity of StuttgartStuttgart

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