Advertisement

Protoplasma

, Volume 111, Issue 2, pp 121–133 | Cite as

Endoplasmic reticulum in the formation of the cell plate and plasmodesmata

  • P. K. Hepler
Article

Summary

The association of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) with the developing cell plate has been analyzed in lettuce roots fixed in glutaraldehyde and post-fixed in a mixture of osmium tetroxide-potassium ferricyanide (OsFeCN). Electron microscopic observations show that elements of ER, which are selectively stained by the OsFeCN reagent, become loosely associated with aggregating dictyosome vesicles at the onset of plate formation. Subsequently the ER, in a tubular reticulate network, surrounds the vesicular aggregates creating a three dimensional membrane matrix. It is suggested that the ER (1) provides a structural framework that holds the vesicles in position and directs their fusion within the plane of the plate and/or (2) regulates the local release of calcium ions required for vesicle fusion.

OsFeCN post-fixation also provides new information about the cell plate vesicles themselves. The results demonstrate that vesicles derived from dictyosomes undergo an abrupt increase in staining as they fuse at the plate.

Finally the ER associated with developing and mature plasmodesmata has been examined. Electron micrographs reveal that the OsFeCN staining, seen traversing the cell plate in early stages, later becomes restricted from that portion of the ER extending through the plasmodesmatal canal. These structural observations support the idea that during formation of the plasmodesma a tubular element of ER is tightly furled upon itself and that its inner leaflet is compressed into a rod. The ER cisternal space appears occluded and thus it is argued that intercellular transport occurs through the cytoplasmic annulus of the plasmodesmata.

Keywords

Cell plate Endoplasmic reticulum Dictyosome vesicles Plasmodesmata 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Benbadis, M.-C., Lasselain, M.-J., Deysson, G., 1973: Imprégnation osmique de cellules méristématiques de la racine: application à l'étude de l'appareil de Golgi normal et modifié par l'antipyrine. C. R. Acad. Sci. ParisD277, 2349–2352.Google Scholar
  2. Burgess, J., 1971: Observations on structure and differentiation in plasmodesmata. Protoplasma73, 83–95.Google Scholar
  3. Chardard, R., 1973: Observations aux microscopes électroniques à bas et haut voltages de coupes fines et épaisses de cellules méristématiques radiculaires deZea mays L. imprégnées par des sels métalliques. C.R. Acad. Sci. ParisD276, 2155–2158.Google Scholar
  4. Cronshaw, J., Esau, K., 1968: Cell division in leaves ofNicotiana. Protoplasma65, 1–24.Google Scholar
  5. Cutter, E. G., Hung, C.-Y., 1972: Symmetric and asymmetric mitosis and cytokinesis in the root tip ofHydrocharis morsusranae L. J. Cell Sci.11, 723–737.Google Scholar
  6. Dietrich, J., 1975: Étude ultrastructurale du mode d'action de la cafféine dans l'inhibition de la cytodiérèse de cellule végétale. Le Botaniste57, 75–84.Google Scholar
  7. Endo, M., 1977: Calcium release from the sarcoplasmic reticulum. Physiol. Rev.57, 71–108.Google Scholar
  8. Gazeau, C.-M., 1975: Caractères des structures imprégnées par l'osmium au cours de la formation de la plague télophasique dans le méristème radiculaire deTriticum vulgare (Graminées). J. Microscopie Biol. Cell.23, 321–326.Google Scholar
  9. Gunning, B. E. S., Hughes, J. E., 1976: Quantitative assessment of symplastic transport of pre-nectar into the trichomes ofAbutilon nectaries. Aust. J. Plant Physiol.3, 619–637.Google Scholar
  10. —,Robards, A. W., 1976: Plasmodesmata and symplastic transport. In: Transport and Transfer Processes in Plants (Wardlaw, I. F., Passioura, J. B., eds.). pp. 15–41. New York: Academic Press.Google Scholar
  11. Hawes, C. R., Juniper, B. E., Horne, J. C., 1981: Low and High voltage electron microscopy of mitosis and cytokinesis in maize roots. Planta (Berl.)152, 397–407.Google Scholar
  12. Hepler, P. K., 1980: Membranes in the mitotic apparatus of barley cells. J. Cell Biol.86, 490–499.Google Scholar
  13. —, 1981: The structure of the endoplasmic reticulum revealed by osmium tetroxide-potassium ferricyanide staining. Eur. J. Cell Biol.26, 102–110.Google Scholar
  14. —,Jackson, W. T., 1968: Microtubules and early stages of cell-plate formation in the endosperm ofHaemanthus katherinae Baker. J. Cell Biol.38, 437–446.Google Scholar
  15. —,Jackson, W. T., Newcomb, E. H., 1967: Fine structure of cell plate formation in the apical meristem ofPhaseolus roots. J. Ultrastruct. Res.19, 498–513.Google Scholar
  16. Jones, M. G. K., 1976: The origin and development of plasmodesmata. In: Intercellular Communication in Plants: Studies on Plasmodesmata (Gunning, B. E. S., Robards, A. W., eds.), pp. 81–105. Berlin-Heidelberg-New York: Springer.Google Scholar
  17. —,Payne, H. L., 1977: Cytokinesis inImpatiens balsamina and the effect of caffeine. Cytobios20, 79–91.Google Scholar
  18. Lehmann, H., Schulz, D., 1969: Elektronenmikroskopische Untersuchungen von Differenzierungsvorgängen bei Moosen II. Die Zellplatten- und Zellwandbildung. Planta (Berl.)85, 313–325.Google Scholar
  19. López-Sáez, J. F., Giménez-Martin, G., Risueño, M. C., 1966: Fine structure of the plasmodesm. Protoplasma61, 81–84.Google Scholar
  20. Mollenhauer, H. H., Mollenhauer, B. A., 1978: Changes in the secretory activity of the Golgi apparatus during the cell cycle in root tips of maize (Zea mays L.). Planta138, 113–118.Google Scholar
  21. —,Morré, D. J., 1980: The Golgi apparatus. In: The Biochemistry of Plants, Vol. 1 (Tolbert, N. E., ed.), pp. 437–488. New York: Academic Press.Google Scholar
  22. Morré, D. J., Ovtracht, L., 1977: Dynamics of the Golgi apparatus: membrane differentiation and membrane flow. Inter. Rev. Cytol. Suppl.5, 61–188.Google Scholar
  23. O'Brien, T. P., 1972: The cytology of cell wall formation in some eukaryotic cells. Botan. Rev.38, 87–118.Google Scholar
  24. Olesen, P., 1975: Plasmodesmata between mesophyll and bundle sheath cells in relation to the exchange of C4 acids. Planta123, 199–202.Google Scholar
  25. Overall, R. L., Wolfe, J., Gunning, B. E. S., 1982: Intercellular communication inAzolla roots: I. Ultrastructure of plasmodesmata. Protoplasma111, 134–150.Google Scholar
  26. Paul, D. C., Goff, C. W., 1973: Comparative effects of caffeine, its analogues and calcium deficiency on cytokinesis. Exp. Cell Res.78, 399–413.Google Scholar
  27. Porter, K. R.,Caulfield, J. B., 1958: The formation of the cell plate during cytokinesis inAllium cepa L. Fourth Inter. Cong. EM, Berlin, pp. 503–507.Google Scholar
  28. —,Machado, R. D., 1960: Studies on the endoplasmic reticulumr IV. Its form and distribution during mitosis in cells of onion root tip. J. biophys. biochem. Cytol.7, 167–180.Google Scholar
  29. Poux, N., 1973: Observation en microscopie électronique de cellules végétales imprégnées par l'osmium. C. R. Acad. Sci. ParisD 276, 2163–2166.Google Scholar
  30. Robards, A. W., 1971: The ultrastructure of plasmodesmata. Protoplasma72, 315–323.Google Scholar
  31. —, 1976: Plasmodesmata in higher plants. In: Intercellular Communication in Plants: Studies on Plasmodesmata (Gunning, B. E. S., Robards, A. W., eds.), pp. 15–57. Berlin-Heidelberg-New York: Springer.Google Scholar
  32. Semenova, G. A., Tageeva, S. V., 1972: Ultrastructural organization of intercellular connections between the plasmodesms of plant cells. Dokl. Akad. Nauk. SSSR. Ser. Biol.202, 1427–1428.Google Scholar
  33. Vian, B., Rougher, M., 1974: Ultrastructure des plasmodesmes après cryoultramicrotomie. J. Microscopie20, 307–312.Google Scholar
  34. Whaley, W. G., Dauwalder, M., Kephart, J. E., 1966: The Golgi apparatus and an early stage in cell plate formation. J. Ultrastruct. Res.15, 169–180.Google Scholar
  35. —,Mollenhauer, H. H., 1963: The Golgi-apparatus and cell plate formation-a postulate. J. Cell Biol.17, 216–221.Google Scholar
  36. White, D. L., Mazurkiewicz, J. E., Barrnett, R. J., 1979: A chemical mechanism for tissue staining by osmium tetroxide-ferrocyanide mixtures. J. Histochem. Cytochem.27, 1084–1091.Google Scholar
  37. Wick, S. M., Hepler, P. K., 1980: Localization of Ca++-containing antimonate precipitates during mitosis. J. Cell Biol.86, 500–513.Google Scholar
  38. Willison, J. H. M., 1976: Plasmodesmata: a freeze-fracture view. Can. J. Bot.54, 2842–2847.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 1982

Authors and Affiliations

  • P. K. Hepler
    • 1
  1. 1.Botany DepartmentUniversity of MassachusettsAmherstUSA

Personalised recommendations