This paper summarizes the fundamentals and describes advances in the vibrating probe, a tool that was developed and introduced into biological research byJaffe andNuccitelli in 1974. The improvements reported are concerned on the one hand with the construction, micropositioning and maintenance of the probe itself and, on the other hand, with the origin of artifacts and possible ways to avoid or, at least, to detect and monitor them. The advances in construction and the elucidation of possible artifacts may help extend the usefulness of this unique tool in investigations of ionic currents which cells and tissues drive through themselves during development and movement.
KeywordsBioelectric currents Extracellular current measurements Vibrating probe
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