Meteorology and Atmospheric Physics

, Volume 67, Issue 1–4, pp 37–69 | Cite as

The formation of tropical cyclones

  • W. M. Gray


This paper attempts a synthesis of new observations and new concepts on how tropical cyclone formation occurs. Despite many worthy observational and numerical modeling studies in recent decades, our understanding of the detailed physical processes associated with the early stages of tropical cyclone formation is still inadequate; operational forecast skill is not very high. Although theoretical ideas cover a wide range of possibilities, results of new observations are helping us to narrow our search into more specific and relevant topic areas.


Climate Change Waste Water Numerical Modeling Water Management Water Pollution 


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 1998

Authors and Affiliations

  • W. M. Gray
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Atmospheric ScienceColorado State UniversityFort CollinsUSA

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