, Volume 7, Issue 4, pp 189–190 | Cite as

Ant-derived formic acid can be toxic for birds

  • A. T. D. Bennett
  • M. H. Lloyd
  • I. C. Cuthill
Short communications

Key words

chemical defence toxicity formic acid Formica rufa Sturnus vulgaris 


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Copyright information

© Birkhäuser Verlag 1996

Authors and Affiliations

  • A. T. D. Bennett
    • 1
  • M. H. Lloyd
    • 2
  • I. C. Cuthill
    • 3
  1. 1.Department of ZoologyUniversity of OxfordGB-OxfordUnited Kingdom
  2. 2.Veterinary ServicesUniversity of Oxford, University Laboratory of PhysiologyGB-OxfordUnited Kingdom
  3. 3.School of Biological SciencesUniversity of BristolGB-BristolUnited Kingdom

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