This study investigates the effect of adding sourdough to wheat bread dough on the production of flavour compounds in wheat bread crumb. The sourdoughs were fermented with starter cultures of lactic acid bacteria alone and in combination with sourdough yeasts. The volatile compounds in the bread crumb were isolated by a dynamic headspace technique and extraction analysis, analysed by gas chromatography (GC), and identified on the basis of GC retention times for reference compounds and mass spectrometry (MS). The chemical analyses were combined with sensory evaluation. The volume of the loaves increased significantly when the doughs had 5–20% sourdough added compared with the control bread (bread without sourdough). In the sourdough bread, the content of acetic acid, 2-methylpropanoic acid, and 3-methylbutanoic acid was generally higher, and loaves made with the addition of sourdoughs fermented withLactobacillus plantarum, L. delbrueckii, orL. sanfrancisco had a higher content of 2- or 3-methyl-1-butanol than control bread. Interactions were seen between the starter cultures and the sourdough yeasts, and the production of the following compounds was increased depending on the starter culture used and on the sourdough yeast: ethanol, 2-methylpropanol, 2/3-methyl-1-butanol, 2-phenylethanol, benzyl alcohol, acetic acid, 2-methylpropanoic acid, and 3-methylpropanoic acid. Bread made with an addition of 5% to 15% sourdough fermented withL. sanfrancisco had a pleasant, mild and sour odour and taste.L. plantarum bread had a strong, sour and unpleasant odour and a metallic sour taste with a sour aftertaste, but when the sourdough was also supplemented with the sourdough yeastSaccharomyces cerevisiae, the bread attained a more aromatic wheat bread flavour, which may be caused, in part, by a higher content of 2/3-methyl-1-butanol, 2-methylpropanoic acid, 3-methylbutanoic acid and 2-phenylethanol.
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Hansen, Å., Hansen, B. Flavour of sourdough wheat bread crumb. Z Lebensm Unters Forch 202, 244–249 (1996). https://doi.org/10.1007/BF01263548
- Wheat bread
- Flavour compounds