Journal of Neurocytology

, Volume 6, Issue 2, pp 131–153 | Cite as

The organization of the outer plexiform layer in the retina of the cat: electron microscopic observations

  • Helga Kolb
Article

Summary

The outer plexiform layer of the cat retina has been examined by electron microscopy of random and serial ultrathin sections in order that neural profiles might be positively identified and their synaptic relationships studied. Photoreceptors are interconnected by means of gap junctions as are the A horizontal cells. B horizontal cells and axon terminals do not appear to be engaged in any synapses apart from those with photoreceptors, while A horizontal cells make rare ‘junctions’ with cone bipolars only. Interplexiform cell processes probably account for all the conventional chemical synapses in the outer plexiform layer of cat retina.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Baylor, D. A. andHodgkin, A. L. (1973) Detection and resolution by turtle photoreceptors.Journal of Physiology 234, 163–98.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. Boycott, B. B. (1974) Aspects of the comparative anatomy and physiology of the vertebrate retina. InEssays on the nervous system;a festschrift for Professor J. Z. Young (edited byBellairs, R. andGray, E. G.), pp. 233–257. Oxford: Clarendon Press.Google Scholar
  3. Boycott, B. B., Dowling, J. E., Fisher, S. K., Kolb, H. andLaties, A. M. (1975) Interplexiform cells of the mammalian retina and their comparison with catechol-amine-containing retinal cells.Proceedings of the Royal Society of London, Series B 191, 353–68.Google Scholar
  4. Boycott, B. B. andKolb, H. (1973) The connexions between bipolar cells and photoreceptors in the retina of the domestic cat.Journal of Comparative Neurology 148, 91–114.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. Cajal, S. R. (1892) La retine des vertébrés. The English translation of Greef (1894) has been used here:The structure of the retina (1972). (edited byThorpe, S. A. andGlickstein, M.), Charles C. Thomas: Springfield, Illinois.Google Scholar
  6. Cleland, B. B. andLevick, W. R. (1974) Brisk and sluggish concentrically organized ganglion cells in the cat's retina.Journal of Physiology 240, 421–56.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. Colonnier, R. (1964) The tangential organization of the visual cortex.Journal of Anatomy 98, 327–44.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. Custer, N. V. (1973) Structurally specialized contacts between the photoreceptors of the retina of the Axolotol.Journal of Comparative Neurology 151, 35–56.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. Dowling, J. E. (1970) Organization of vertebrate retinas.Investigative Ophthalmology 9, 655–80.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. Dowling, J. E., Brown, J. E. andMajor, D. (1966) Synapses of horizontal cells in the rabbit and cat retinae.Science 153, 1639–41.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. Dowling, J. E. andWerblin, F. S. (1968) Organization of retina of the mudpuppy,Necturus maculosus. I. Synaptic structure.Journal of Neurophysiology 32, 315–38.Google Scholar
  12. Enroth-Cugell, C. andRobson, J. G. (1966) The contrast sensitivity of retinal ganglion cells of the cat.Journal of Physiology 187, 517–52.Google Scholar
  13. Fain, G. L. (1975) Quantum sensitivity of rods in the toad retina.Science 187, 838–40.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. Fain, G. L., Gold, G. H. andDowling, J. E. (1976) Receptor coupling in toad retina.Cold Spring Harbor Symposium on Quantitative Biology 40, 547–62.Google Scholar
  15. Fisher, S. K. andBoycott, B. B. (1974) Synaptic connexions made by horizontal cells within the outer plexiform layer of the retina of the cat and the rabbit.Proceedings of the Royal Society of London, Series B 186, 317–31.Google Scholar
  16. Gallego, A. (1965) Connexions transversales au niveau des couches plexiforme de la retine. InActualitiées nemophysiologiques, Serie VI 5–27. Masson: Paris.Google Scholar
  17. Gallego, A. (1971) Horizontal and amacrine cells in the mammal's retina.Vision Research, Supplement to2, 33–50.Google Scholar
  18. Honrubia, F. M. andElliot, J. E. (1969) Horizontal cells of the Mammal retina.Archives of Ophthalmology 82, 98–104.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. Kaneko, A. (1971) Electrical connexions between horizontal cells in the dogfish retina.Journal of Physiology 213, 95–105.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. Kaneko, A. (1973) Receptive field organization of bipolar and amacrine cells in the goldfish retina.Journal of Physiology 235, 133–53.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. Kolb, H. (1974) The connections between horizontal cells and photoreceptors in the retina of the cat: Electron microscopy of Golgi preparations.Journal of Comparative Neurology 155, 1–14.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. Kolb, H. andWest, R. (1977) Synaptic connections of the interplexiform cell in the retina of thecat.Journal of Neurocytology 6, 155–70.Google Scholar
  23. Lasansky, A. (1971) Synaptic organization of cone cells in the turtle retina.Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society Series B 262, 365–81.Google Scholar
  24. Lasansky, A. (1972) Cell junctions at the outer synaptic layer of the retina.Investigative Ophthalmology 11, 265–75.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. Lasansky, A. (1973) Organization of the outer synaptic layer in the retina of the Larval Tiger Salamander.Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society, Series B 265, 471–89.Google Scholar
  26. Lasansky, A. andVallerga, S. (1975) Horizontal cell responses in the retina of the Larval Tiger Salamander.Journal of Physiology 251, 145–65.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. Leicester, J. andStone, J. (1967) Ganglion, amacrine and horizontal cells of the cat's retina.Vision Research 7, 695–705.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. Missotten, L. (1965)The ultrastructure of the human retina. Brussels: Arscia. Uitgaven N.V.Google Scholar
  29. Nelson, R. (1977) Cat cones have rod input: A comparison of the response properties of cones and horizontal cell bodies in the retina of the cat.Journal of Comparative Neurology, in press.Google Scholar
  30. Nelson, R., Von LÜtzow, A., Kolb, H. andGouras, P. (1975) Horizontal cells in cat retina with independent dendritic systems.Science 189, 137–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. Niemeyer, G. andGouras, P. (1973) Rod and Cone signals in S-potentials of the isolated perfused cat eye.Vision Research 13, 1603–12.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. Olney, J. W. (1968) An electron microscopic study of synapse formation, receptor outer segment development, and other aspects of developing mouse retina.Investigative Ophthalmology 7, 250–68.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. Peters, A., Palay, S. L. andWebster, H. F. (1970)The fine structure of the nervous system.The cells and their processes. Hoeber Med. Div. Harper and Row: New York.Google Scholar
  34. Raviola, E. andGilula, N. B. (1973) Gap junctions between photoreceptor cells in the vertebrate retina.Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences U.S.A. 70, 1677–81.Google Scholar
  35. Raviola, E. andGilula, N. B. (1975) Intramembrane organization of specialized contacts in the outer plexiform layer of the retina: A freeze-fracture study in Monkeys and Rabbits.Journal of Cell Biology 65, 192–222.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. Reese, T. andKarnovsky, M. (1967) Fine structural localization of a blood-brain barrier to exogenous peroxidase.Journal of Cell Biology 34, 207–18.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. Richter, A. andSimon, E. J. (1975) Properties of centre-hyperpolarizing, red-sensitive bipolar cell in the turtle retina.Journal of Physiology 248, 317–34.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. Saito, T., Miller, W. H. andTomita, T. (1974) C- and L-type horizontal cells in the turtle retina.Vision Research 14, 119–23.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. Schwartz, E. A. (1975) Rod-rod interaction in the retina ofthe turtle.Journal of Physiology 246, 617–38.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. Shkolnick-Yarros, E. G. (1971) Neurons of the cat's retina.Vision Research 11, 7–26.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. Simon, E. J. (1973) Two types of luminosity horizontal cells in the retina of the turtle.Journal of Physiology 230, 199–211.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  42. Sjöstrand, F. S. (1969) The outer plexiform layer and the neural organization of the retina. 63–100. InThe Retina (edited byStraatsma, B. R., Hall, M. O., Allen, R. A. andCrescitelli, F.). University of California Press: Berkeley and Los Angeles.Google Scholar
  43. Steinberg, R. H. (1969) Rod and cone contributions to the S-potential from the cat retina.Vision Research 9, 1319–29.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  44. Steinberg, R. H., Reid, M. andLacey, P. L. (1973) The distribution of rods and cones in the retina of the cat (Felix domesticus).Journal of Comparative Neurology 148, 229–48.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  45. Stell, W. K. (1965) Correlation of retinal cytoarchitecture and ultrastructure in Golgi preparations.Anatomical Record 153, 389–98.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  46. Uga, S., Nakao, F., Mimura, M. andIkui, H. (1970) Some new findings on the fine structure of the human photoreceptor cells.Journal of Electron Microscopy 19, 210–4.Google Scholar
  47. Werblin, F. S. andDowling, J. E. (1969) Organization of the retina of the mudpuppy,Necturus maculosus. II Intracellular recording.Journal of Neurophysiology 32, 339–55.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  48. Witkovsky, P. andDowling, J. E. (1969) Synaptic relationships in the plexiform layers of carp retina.Zeitschrift für Zellforschung und mikroskopische Anatomie 100, 60–82.Google Scholar
  49. Witkovsky, P., Shakib, M. andRipps, H. (1974) Interreceptoral junctions in the teleost retina.Investigative Ophthalmology 13, 996–1009.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  50. Yamada, E. andIshikawa, T. (1965) The fine structure of the horizontal cells in some vertebrate retinae.Cold Spring Harbor Symposium on Quantitative Biology 30, 383–92.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Chapman and Hall Ltd. 1977

Authors and Affiliations

  • Helga Kolb
    • 1
  1. 1.Laboratory of NeurophysiologyNational Institute of Neurological and Communicative Disorders and Stroke, National Institutes of HealthBetbesdaUSA

Personalised recommendations