International Review of Education

, Volume 41, Issue 3–4, pp 285–296 | Cite as

Home educators and the law within Europe

  • Amanda J. Petrie

Conclusions

In education literature, there is often confusion between compulsory provision of education and compulsory schooling, falsely giving the impression that schooling is compulsory. This is not the case. Home education is permitted in some form or other in all the European countries studied except Germany.

Where the alternative of home education is denied to children who are in difficulty, such as very young children of itinerant workers, or children who are school phobic, one has to question whether the good of the individual child is being considered, rather than the ideals or convenience of education administrators. Home education is a welcome alternative to those children who need it and benefit from it and there is no evidence in academic literature or general writing on education to suggest that home education does not usually offer a good alternative to the children involved, both academically and socially.

Much research has been undertaken into home education in the US, there have been a few studies within the UK and a study in Switzerland of the laws which apply to home educators within each canton and an assessment of the numbers of home educated children in both Austria and Switzerland. In other European countries, there has been little or no research into the numbers of home educated children, the ways in which home educated children learn, efficient methods of monitoring home education, or whether home education is effective. Perhaps it is by looking more closely at these families that the effectiveness of schooling can be better assessed: fundamental questions can be asked about the added value of schooling.

My preliminary investigations indicate that, with the exception of Denmark, where it is easy for parents to set up small schools with financial help from government, there are instances of home education in all the countries studied.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Altendorf, Herman. 1988.Berthold Otto: ein Wegbereiter der modernen Erlebnispädagogik?. Lüneburg: Verlag Klaus Neubauer.Google Scholar
  2. Aprender sin Escuela can be obtained from Apartado 28198, Madrid 28080, Spain.Google Scholar
  3. Arthur, 1991.Mon école buissionière. Paris: Fixot.Google Scholar
  4. Blau, Peter M. and Meyer W. Marshal. 1971.Bureaucracy in Modern Society. 2nd ed. New York: Random House.Google Scholar
  5. Bliss, Barbara A. 1989. Home Education: A Look at Current Practices. Michigan State University, College of Education, research project report.Google Scholar
  6. Craft, Maurice, Raynor, John and Cohen, Louis. 1992.Linking Home and School. 2nd ed. London: Longman.Google Scholar
  7. DFE. 1994.Our Children's Education: The Updated Parent's Charter. London: HMSO.Google Scholar
  8. Education Otherwise. 1993.School Is not Compulsory. Obtainable from Church Lane Cottages, Newton Harcourt, Leicestershire, LE8 9FT.Google Scholar
  9. Goertzel, Victor and Goertzel, Mildred George. 1965.Cradles of Eminence. London: Constable and Company.Google Scholar
  10. Green, Andy. 1990.Education and State Formation: The Rise of Education Systems in England, France and the USA. London: Macmillan.Google Scholar
  11. Gustavsen, Gunnar Avid. 1981.Selected Characteristics of Home Schools and Parents Who Operate Them. Ed.D. thesis, Andrews University, USA.Google Scholar
  12. Heimrath, Johannes. 1991.Tilmann geht nicht zur Schule: eine erfolgreiche Schulverweigerung. Wolfratshausen, Germany: Drachen Verlag GmbH.Google Scholar
  13. Knaepkens, Ludo. 1987.Report on the Education of the Children of the Itinerant Population in the Twelve Member States of the European Community: Rivercraft Children, Circus Children. Luxembourg: Commission of the European Communities.Google Scholar
  14. Knowles, J. Gary. 1988. The Context of Home-Schooling in the United States.Education and Urban Society 21(1) Nov.: 5–15.Google Scholar
  15. Knox, Patricia. 1988.Troubled Children: A Fresh Look at School Phobia, Gwynedd, UK: P. Knox, Pen LLywan, Holyhead.Google Scholar
  16. Kreitmaier, Karl. 1963.Bertold Otto: Ausgewählte pädagogische Schriften. Paderborn: Schöningh.Google Scholar
  17. Leuffen, Renata. 1993.Natürlich ohne Schule leben. Bonn, Germany: Kid Verlag.Google Scholar
  18. Leuffen, Reenata. 1994. Home Education Today: A Reference Book with Basic Information. Unpublished manuscript.Google Scholar
  19. Liegeois, Jean-Pierre. 1987.School Provision for Gypsy and Traveller Children: A Synthesis Report. Luxembourg: Commission of the European Communities.Google Scholar
  20. Lowden, S. 1988.Education Otherwise: Local Education Authorities' Responses. M.Ed. thesis, University of Nottingham.Google Scholar
  21. Marti, Hanna. 1991. Enquête suisse sur le homeschooling.Endlich/enfin. No. 2. Further details can be obtained from VFSS/ASEN, Chlini Schanz 92, 8260 Stein am Rhein, Switzerland.Google Scholar
  22. McCurdy, Harold G. 1960. The Childhood Patterns of Genius.Horizon May: 32–41.Google Scholar
  23. Melton, James Van Horn. 1988.Absolutism and the Eighteenth-Century Origins of Compulsory Schooling in Prussia and Austria. Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  24. Mors, Albrecht. 1986.Die Entwicklung der Schulpflicht in Deutschland. Inaugural dissertation Ph.D., Tübingen, Eberhard-Karls-Universität.Google Scholar
  25. Mullarney, Maire. 1983.Anything School Can Do You Can Do Better. Dublin: Arlen House.Google Scholar
  26. OECD. 1969.Reviews of National Policies for Education: Italy. Paris: OECD.Google Scholar
  27. OECD. 1983.Compulsory Schooling in a Changing World. Paris: OECD.Google Scholar
  28. OECD. 1994.School: A Matter of Choice. Paris: OECD.Google Scholar
  29. Parsons, Talcott. 1959. The School Class as a Social System.Harvard Educational Review 29(4) Fall: 297–318.Google Scholar
  30. Petrie, Amanda J. 1992.Home Education and the Local Education Authority: From Conflict to Cooperation. Ph.D. thesis, Liverpool University, UK.Google Scholar
  31. Petrie, Amanda J. 1993. Education at Home and the Law.Education and the Law 5(3): 139–144.Google Scholar
  32. Ray, Brian D. and Jon Wartes. 1991. The Academic Achievement and Affective Development of Home-schooled Children. In: Jane Van Galen and Mary Ann Pitman, eds.,Home Schooling: Political, Historical and Pedagogical Perspectives (43-62). Norwood, New Jersey, USA: Ablex Publishing Corporation.Google Scholar
  33. Richter, I. 1990. West Germany, Switzerland and Austria. In: I. Birch and I. Richter, eds.,Comparative School Law (119-138). Exeter, UK: Pergamon Press.Google Scholar
  34. Stein, Ekkehart und Roell, Monika. 1988.Handbuch des Schulrechts. Köln: Heymann.Google Scholar
  35. Taylor, John Wesley V. 1986.Self-concept in Home-schooling Children. Ph.D. thesis, Andrews University, USA.Google Scholar
  36. Van Galen, Jane and Pitman, Mary Ann. 1991.Home Schooling: Political, Historical, and Pedagogical Perspectives. Norwood, New Jersey, USA: Ablex Publishing Corporation.Google Scholar
  37. Webb, Julie. 1988.Home-based Education: Some Aspects of Its Practice and Consequences. Ph.D. thesis, Open University, Milton Keynes, UK.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Kluwer Academic Publishers 1995

Authors and Affiliations

  • Amanda J. Petrie

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations