Human Genetics

, Volume 92, Issue 4, pp 315–324 | Cite as

The pseudoautosomal regions of the human sex chromosomes

  • Gudrun A. Rappold
Review Article


In human females, both X chromosomes are equivalent in size and genetic content, and pairing and recombination can theoretically occur anywhere along their entire length. In human males, however, only small regions of sequence identity exist between the sex chromosomes. Recombination and genetic exchange is restricted to these regions of identity, which cover 2.6 and 0.4 Mbp, respectively, and are located at the tips of the short and the long arm of the X and Y chromosome. The unique biology of these regions has attracted considerable interest, and complete long-range restriction maps as well as comprehensive physical maps of overlapping YAC clones are already available. A dense genetic linkage map has disclosed a high rate of recombination at the short arm telomere. A consequence of the obligatory recombination within the pseudoautosomal region is that genes show only partial sex linkage. Pseudoautosomal genes are also predicted to escape X-inactivation, thus guaranteeing an equal dosage of expressed sequences between the X and Y chromosomes. Gene pairs that are active on the X and Y chromosomes are suggested as candidates for the phenotypes seen in numerical X chromosome disorders, such as Klinefelter's (47,XXY) and Turner's syndrome (45,X). Several new genes have been assigned to the Xp/Yp pseudoautosomal region. Potential associations with clinical disorders such as short stature, one of the Turner features, and psychiatric diseases are discussed. Genes in the Xq/Yq pseudoautosomal region have not been identified to date.


Unique Biology Human Female Chromosome Disorder Pseudoautosomal Region Turner Feature 
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© Springer-Verlag 1993

Authors and Affiliations

  • Gudrun A. Rappold
    • 1
  1. 1.Institut für HumangenetikUniversität HeidelbergHeidelbergGermany

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