Microchimica Acta

, Volume 114, Issue 1, pp 143–155 | Cite as

Environmental scanning electron microscopy and microanalysis

  • Gerasimos D. Danilatos
Invited Speakers


It is shown that the environmental scanning electron microscope is the natural extension of the scanning electron microscope. The former incorporates all of the conventional functions of the latter and, in addition, it opens many new ways of looking at virtually any specimen, wet or dry, insulating or conducting. The environmental scanning electron microscope is characterised by the possibility of maintaining a gaseous pressure in the specimen chamber. All operational parameters can be varied within a range which is a function of pressure. It can be used with all types of gun and all basic modes of detection and, hence, it can be applied both to morphological and to microanalytical studies. It has opened many novel ways of looking at specimens and phenomena not previously accessible with scanning electron microscopy.

Key words

environmental SEM microanalysis mass spectrometer surface chemistry 


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. [1]
    G. D. Danilatos,Adv. Electron. Electron. Phys. 1988,71, 109.Google Scholar
  2. [2]
    W. R. Gerristead, L. F. Link, R. C. Paciej, P. Damiani, H. Li,Microsc. Res. Tech.,1993,25, 523.Google Scholar
  3. [3]
    L. F. Keyser, and M. T. Leu,Microsc. Res. Technique,1993,25, 434.Google Scholar
  4. [4]
    S. L. Geiger, T. J. Ross, L. L. Barton,Microsc. Res. Technique 1993,25, 429.Google Scholar
  5. [5]
    R. E. Parra,Microsc. Res. Techn. 1993,25, 362.Google Scholar
  6. [6]
    J. H. Rask, J. E. Flood, J. K. Borchardt, G. A. York,Microsc. Res. Tech. 1993,25, 384.Google Scholar
  7. [7]
    R. B. Bolon, C. D. Robertson, E. Lifshin,Microbeam Analysis, (P. E. Russel, ed.), San Francisco Press, San Francisco, 1989, p. 449.Google Scholar
  8. [8]
    R. B. Bolon,Microbeam Analysis, (D. G. Howitt, ed.), San Francisco Press, San Francisco, 1991, p. 199.Google Scholar
  9. [9]
    G. D. Danilatos,Microsc. Res. Tech. 1993,25, 529.Google Scholar
  10. [10]
    G. D. Danilatos,Scanning 1981,4, 9.Google Scholar
  11. [11]
    G. D. Danilatos, R. Postle,Micron 1983,14, 41.Google Scholar
  12. [12]
    G. D. Danilatos,Scanning 1985,7, 26.Google Scholar
  13. [13]
    G. D. Danilatos,Scanning 1990,12, 23.Google Scholar
  14. [14]
    G. D. Danilatos,Microbeam Analysis, (D. G. Howitt, ed.), San Francisco Press, San Francisco, 1991, p. 201.Google Scholar
  15. [15]
    K. Jost, Kessler,Zeits. Phys. 1963,176, 126.Google Scholar
  16. [16]
    G. D. Danilatos,Scanning Microsc. 1990,4, 799.Google Scholar
  17. [17]
    G. D. Danilatos,Micron Microscop. Acta 1983,14, 307.Google Scholar
  18. [18]
    G. D. Danilatos,Scanning 1986,8, 279.Google Scholar
  19. [19]
    A. G. Huxley, A. A. ZaazouProc. Roy. Soc. Lond. 1949,196, 402.Google Scholar
  20. [20]
    V. N. E. Robinson, B. W. Robinson,Scanning Electron Microsc./1978/I (SEM Inc. AMF O'Hare), 1978, p. 595.Google Scholar
  21. [21]
    G. D. Danilatos,J. Microsc. 1990,160, 9.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 1994

Authors and Affiliations

  • Gerasimos D. Danilatos
    • 1
  1. 1.ESEM Research LaboratorySydneyAustralia

Personalised recommendations