Advertisement

Microchimica Acta

, Volume 126, Issue 3–4, pp 177–192 | Cite as

Optical sensors for determination of heavy metal ions

  • Ines Oehme
  • Otto S. Wolfbeis
Fundamental Review

Abstract

A review is given on optical means for single shot testing (“probing”) as well as continuous monitoring (“sensing”) of heavy metal ions (HMs). Following an introduction into indicator based approaches, we discuss the types of indicator dyes and polymeric supports used, as well as existing sensing schemes for HMs. The wealth of information is compiled in the form of tables and critically reviewed. Notwithstanding the tremendous work performed so far, it is obvious that still severe limitations do exist in terms of selectivity, limits of detection, dynamic ranges, applicability to specific problems, and reversibility. On the other hand, such sensors have found — and will find — their application whenever rapid and cost-effective testing is required, where personnel is scarce or unskilled, and in field tests. Despite their limitations, the number of such sensors (and of irreversible “probes”) for HMs is likely to increase in future.

Key words

optical sensors heavy metal sensors photometry indicators polymers for sensors 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. [1]
    E. Merian,Metals and Their Compounds in the Environment, VCH, Weinheim, 1991.Google Scholar
  2. [2]
    W. R. Seitz, in:Fiber Optic Chemical Sensors and Biosensors, Vol. 2 (O.S. Wolfbeis, ed.), CRC, Boca Raton, FL, 1991, pp. 1–17.Google Scholar
  3. [3]
    J. Janata,Anal. Chem. 1992,64, 921A.Google Scholar
  4. [4]
    R. J. Hurtubise,Solid Surface Luminescence Analysis: Theory, Instrumentation, Applications, Dekker, New York, 1981.Google Scholar
  5. [5]
    A. Mizuike,Enrichment Techniques for Trace Analysis, Springer, Berlin Heidelberg New York, 1983.Google Scholar
  6. [6]
    J. Minczewski, J. Chwestowska, R. Dybczynski,Separation and Preconcentration Methods in Inorganic Analysis, Horwood, Chichester, 1982.Google Scholar
  7. [7]
    W. Wegscheider, G. Knapp,CRC Crit. Rev. Anal. Chem. 1981,11, 79.Google Scholar
  8. [8]
    G. V. Myasoedova, S. B. Savvin,CRC Crit. Rev. Anal. Chem. 1986,17, 1.Google Scholar
  9. [9]
    Z. B. Alfani, C. M. Wai,Preconcentration Techniques for Trace Elements, CRC, Boca Raton, FL, 1992.Google Scholar
  10. [10]
    M. Valcarcel, F. Grases,Talanta 1983,30, 139.Google Scholar
  11. [11]
    H. A. Mottola, D. Perez-Bendito,Anal. Chem. 1992,64, 407R.Google Scholar
  12. [12]
    O. S. Wolfbeis,J. Mol. Struct. 1993,292, 133.Google Scholar
  13. [13]
    G. F. Kirkbright, R. Narayanaswamy, N. A. Welti,Analyst 1984,109, 15.Google Scholar
  14. [14]
    M. Valcarcel, M. D. Luque de Castro,Flow Injection Analysis: Principles and Applications, Ellis Harwood, Chichester, 1990.Google Scholar
  15. [15]
    J. E. Freeman, A. G. Childers, A. W. Steele, G. M. Hieftje,Anal. Chim. Acta. 1985,177, 121.Google Scholar
  16. [16]
    R. A. Malstrom, in:Analytical Spectroscopy (W. S. Lyon, ed.) Elsevier, Amsterdam, 1983, 25.Google Scholar
  17. [17]
    R. A. Malstrom,Uranium Analysis by Remote Fiber Fluorimetry, Rep. DP-1737, U. S. Dept. of Energy, contract DE-AC09-76SR00001, 1988.Google Scholar
  18. [18]
    G. Boisde, F. Blanc, P. Mauchien, J. J. Ferez, in:Fiber Optic Chemical Sensors and Biosensors, Vol. 2 (O. S. Wolfbeis, ed.), CRC, Boca Raton, 1991, chap. 14.Google Scholar
  19. [19]
    O. S. Wolfbeis, in:Fiber Optic Chemical Sensors and Biosensors, Vol. I (O. S. Wolfbeis, ed.), CRC, Boca Raton, 1991, chap. 3.Google Scholar
  20. [20]
    E. Bishop,Indicators, Pergamon, Oxford, 1972.Google Scholar
  21. [21]
    K. L. Cheng, K. Ueno. T. Imamura,Handbook of Organic Analytical Reagents, CRC, Boca Raton, 1982.Google Scholar
  22. [22]
    W. R. Seitz,Crit. Rev. Anal. Chem. 1988,19, 135.Google Scholar
  23. [23]
    J. R. Lakowicz,Principles of Fluorescence Spectroscopy, Plenum, New York, 1983.Google Scholar
  24. [24]
    W. R. Seitz,Anal. Chem. 1984,56, 16A.Google Scholar
  25. [25]
    M. Lerchi, E. Bakker, B. Rusterholz, W. Simon,Anal. Chem. 1992,64, 1534.Google Scholar
  26. [26]
    M. Lerchi, E. Reitter, W. Simon, E. Pretsch, D. A. Chowdhury, S. Kamata,Anal. Chem. 1994,66, 1713.Google Scholar
  27. [27]
    H. Hisamoto, E. Nakagawa, K. Nagatsuka, Y. Abe, S. Sato, D. Siswanta, K. SuzukiAnal. Chem. 1995,67, 1315.Google Scholar
  28. [28]
    W. E. Morf, K. Seiler, B. Lehmann, C. Behringer, K. Hartman, W. Simon,Pure Appl. Chem. 1989,61, 1613.Google Scholar
  29. [29]
    K. Seiler, W. Simon,Anal. Chim. Acta 1992,266, 73.Google Scholar
  30. [30]
    R. Eugster, U. E. Spichiger, W. Simon,Anal Chem. 1993,65, 689.Google Scholar
  31. [31]
    T. Saito,Talanta 1994,41, 811.Google Scholar
  32. [32]
    T. Saito,Anal. Chim. Acta 1992,268, 351.Google Scholar
  33. [33]
    R. B. Thompson, E. R. Jones,Anal. Chem. 1993,65, 730.Google Scholar
  34. [34]
    T. N. Shekhovtsova, S. V. Chernetskaya, N. V. Belkova, I. F. Dolmanova,J. Anal. Chem. USSR Engl. Transl. 1994,49, 709.Google Scholar
  35. [35]
    C. Preininger, O. S. Wolfbeis,Biosensors Bioelectronics 1996,11, 981.Google Scholar
  36. [36]
    R. T. Andres, R. Narayanaswamy,Analyst 1995,120, 1549.Google Scholar
  37. [37]
    J. Lu, Z. Zhang,Analyst 1995,120, 453.Google Scholar
  38. [38]
    L. Jianzhong, Z. Zhujun,Anal. Lett. 1994,27, 2431.Google Scholar
  39. [39]
    H. Bartl, J. Falbe,Hauben Weyls Methods of Organic Chemistry, Vol. E20: Macromolecular Materials, Thieme, Stuttgart, 1987.Google Scholar
  40. [40]
    R. L. Davidson,Handbook ofWater-Soluble Gums and Resins, McGraw-Hill, New York, 1980.Google Scholar
  41. [41]
    R. B. Seymour, H. F. Mark,Applications of Polymers, Wiley, New York, 1988.Google Scholar
  42. [42]
    L. A. Wall,Fluoropolymers, Wiley, New York, 1972.Google Scholar
  43. [43]
    R. Molyneux,Water-Soluble Synthetic Polymers. Properties and Behavior, CRC, Boca Raton, 1984.Google Scholar
  44. [44]
    M. L. Davies, B. J. Tighe,Selective Electrode Rev. 1991,13, 159.Google Scholar
  45. [45]
    O. S. Wolfbeis, R. Reisfeld, I. Oehme, in:Structure and Bonding, Vol. 85 (R. Reisfeld, C. K. Jorgensen, eds.), Springer, Berlin Heidelberg, New York Tokyo, 1996.Google Scholar
  46. [46]
    G. W. Scherer, C. J. Brinker,Sol-Gel Science, Academic Press, San Diego, 1990.Google Scholar
  47. [47]
    Z. A. Rogowin, A. Galbraich,Chemical Treatment and Modification of Cellulose, Thieme, Stuttgart, 1983.Google Scholar
  48. [48]
    H. Bartl, J. Falbe,Hauben Weyls Methods of Organic Chemistry, Vol. E20: Macromolecular Materials, Thieme, Stuttgart, 1987, p. 2046.Google Scholar
  49. [49]
    L. Saari, W. R. Seitz,Anal. Chem. 1982,54, 821.Google Scholar
  50. [50]
    T. Werner, O. S. Wolfbeis,Fresenius J. Anal. Chem. 1993,346, 564.Google Scholar
  51. [51]
    H. Bartl, J. Falbe,Hauben Weyls Methods of Organic Chemistry, Vol. E20: Macromolecular Materials, Thieme, Stuttgart,1987, p. 1185.Google Scholar
  52. [52]
    H. Bartl, J. Falbe,Hauben Weyls Methods of Organic Chemistry, Vol. E20: Macromolecular Materials, Thieme, Stuttgart, 1987, p. 1367.Google Scholar
  53. [53]
    N. A. Peppas,Preparation, Methods and Structures of Hydrogels, CRC, Boca Raton, 1986.Google Scholar
  54. [54]
    N. A. Peppas,Hydrogels in Medicine and Pharmacy, CRC, Boca Raton, 1986.Google Scholar
  55. [55]
    B. D. Ratner, in:CRC Series in Biocompatibility, Vol. 2 (D. F. Williams, ed.), CRC, Boca Raton, 1981.Google Scholar
  56. [56]
    I. Murkovic,PhD Thesis, University Graz, 1996.Google Scholar
  57. [57]
    L. A. Saari, W. R. Seitz,Anal. Chem. 1984,56, 813.Google Scholar
  58. [58]
    F. V. Bright, G. E. Poirier, G. M. Hieftje,Talanta 1988,35, 113.Google Scholar
  59. [59]
    Z. Zhujun, W. R. Seitz,Anal. Chim. Acta 1985,171, 251.Google Scholar
  60. [60]
    G. A. Casay, N. Narayanan, L. Evans, T. Czuppon, G. Patonay,Talanta 1996,3, 1997.Google Scholar
  61. [61]
    M. K. Carroll, F. V. Bright, G. M. Hieftje,Anal. Chem. 1989,61, 1768.Google Scholar
  62. [62]
    L. M. Trutneva, O. P. Shvoeva, S. B. Savvin,J. Anal. Chem. USSR Engl. Transl.1989,44, 1804.Google Scholar
  63. [63]
    I. Klimant, M. Otto,Mikrochim. Acta 1992,108, 11.Google Scholar
  64. [64]
    W. A. de Olivera, R. Narayanaswamy,Talanta 1992, 39, 1499.Google Scholar
  65. [65]
    Merck,Reflectoquant Datasheets, Merck, Darmstadt, 1996.Google Scholar
  66. [66]
    F. Lázaro, M. D. L. de Castro, M. Valcárel,Anal. Chim. Acta 1988,214, 217.Google Scholar
  67. [67]
    I. Oehme, B. Prokes, I. Murkovic, T. Werner, I. Klimant, O. S. Wolfbeis,Fresenius J. Anal. Chem 1994,350, 563.Google Scholar
  68. [68]
    A. M. Ervin, K. J. Ewing, R. A. Lamontagne, I. D. Aggarwal, D. A. Rowley,Appl. Optics 1993,32, 4287.Google Scholar
  69. [69]
    L. E. Zeltser, A. V. Bychenko, J. Anal. Chem USSR Engl. Tr.1993,48, 1659.Google Scholar
  70. [70]
    E. Wang, K. Ohashi, S. Kamata,Chem. Lett. 1992, 939.Google Scholar
  71. [71]
    Y. Kurauchi, R. Hayashi, N. Egashira, K. Ohga,Anal. Sci. 1992,8, 837.Google Scholar
  72. [72]
    R. Campañó, R. Ferrer, J. Guiteras, M. D. Part,Analyst 1994,119, 1225.Google Scholar
  73. [73]
    E. Lindner, M. Horváth, K. Tóm, E. Pungor, I. Bitter, B. Ágai, L. Töke, Anal. Lett.1992,25, 453.Google Scholar
  74. [74]
    K. Wang, K. Seiler, B. Rusterholz, W. Simon, Analyst1992,117, 57.Google Scholar
  75. [75]
    R. Czolk, J. Reichert, H. J. Ache,Sens. Actuat. 1991,A25–27, 439.Google Scholar
  76. [76]
    R. Czolk, J. Reichert, H. J. Ache,Sens. Actuat. 1992,B7, 540.Google Scholar
  77. [77]
    M. Plaschke, R. Czolk, H. J. Ache,Anal. Chim. Acta 1995,304, 107.Google Scholar
  78. [78]
    A. Morales-Bahnik, R. Czolk, J. Reichert, H. J. Ache,Sens. Actuat. 1993,B13–14, 424.Google Scholar
  79. [79]
    S. B. Savvin, L. M. Trutneva, O. P. Shvoeva, K. A. Efendieva,J. Anal. Chem. USSR Engl. Tr. 1991,46, 709.Google Scholar
  80. [80]
    I. Murkovic, I. Oehme, G. J. Mohr, T. Ferber, O. S. Wolfbeis,Mikrochim. Acta 1995,121, 249.Google Scholar
  81. [81]
    O. Lev, B. Iosefson-Kuyavskaya, I. Gigozin, M. Ottolenghi, D. Avnir,Fresenius J. Anal. Chem. 1992,343, 370.Google Scholar
  82. [82]
    P. Pulido, J. M. Barrero, M. C. Perez-Conde, C. Camara,Quim. Anal. 1993,12, 48.Google Scholar
  83. [83]
    J. M. Barrero, M. C. Moreno-Bondi, M. C. Pérez-Conde, C. Camara,Talanta 1993,40, 1619.Google Scholar
  84. [84]
    O. Egorov, J. Ruzicka,Analyst 1995,120, 1959.Google Scholar
  85. [85]
    L. M. Trutneva. O. P. Shvoeva, S. B. Savvin,J. Anal. Chem USSR Engl. Tranl. 1994,49, 426.Google Scholar
  86. [86]
    D. J. S. Birch, A. S. Holmes, M. Darbyshire,Meas. Sci. Technol. 1995,6, 243.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 1997

Authors and Affiliations

  • Ines Oehme
    • 1
  • Otto S. Wolfbeis
    • 2
  1. 1.Institute of Organic ChemistryKarl-Franzens University GrazGrazAustria
  2. 2.Institute of Analytical Chemistry, Chemo- and BiosensorsUniversity of RegensburgRegensburgFederal Republic of Germany

Personalised recommendations