Insectes Sociaux

, Volume 41, Issue 4, pp 395–400 | Cite as

Three conditions for the evolution of eusociality: Are they sufficient?

  • B. J. Crespi
Research Articles


I hypothesize that three conditions, (1) food-shelter coincidence, (2) strong selection for defense, and (3) ability to defend, are sufficient, although not necessary, for the evolution of eusociality in group-living animals. Reasons for this association between ecology and eusociality include extremely high value of the habitat, possibilities for habitat inheritance, high relatedness in claustral situations, self-sufficiency of juveniles, greater ability of workers to reproduce, and trade-offs between defensive ability and dispersal.

Key words

Eusociality habitat defense ecology 


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Copyright information

© Birkhäuser Verlag 1994

Authors and Affiliations

  • B. J. Crespi
    • 1
  1. 1.Behavioural Ecology Research Group, Department of BiosciencesSimon Fraser UniversityBurnabyCanada

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