Multimedia Systems

, Volume 1, Issue 2, pp 55–67 | Cite as

Automatically generating consistent schedules for multimedia documents

  • M. Cecelia BuchananEmail author
  • Polle T. Zellweger


A schedule for a multimedia document indicates when document events should occur. We describe a two-phase algorithm that automatically produces schedules for interactive multimedia documents, which can contain both predictable behavior (such as audio and video) and unpredictable behavior (such as user interaction and programs with unpredictable execution times). The first phase of the algorithm, called the compiletime scheduler, preprocesses high-level temporal specifications before the document is presented and creates as much of the schedule as possible. Our compiletime scheduler is conceptually similar to TEX's spatial layout algorithm in that it permits time to be stretched or shrunk between events inside media segments to arrive at an “optimal” presentation for a document. The second phase of the algorithm, called the runtime scheduler, resolves the presentation of media segments that depend upon unpredictable behavior.

Key words

Automatic temporal layout Linear programming Media synchronization Temporal constraints Temporal scheduler 


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Anderson DP (1990) Meta-scheduling for distributed continuous media. University of California at Berkeley, EECS Department, Technical Report No. UCB/CSD 90/599Google Scholar
  2. Bier E (1992) EmbeddedButtons: supporting buttons in documents. ACM Trans Info Syst 10(4):381–407Google Scholar
  3. Blakowski G, Hubel J, Langrehr U (1992) Tool support for the synchronization and presentation of distributed multimedia. Comput Commun 15:611–618Google Scholar
  4. Buchanan MC (1993) Specifying temporal behavior in multimedia documents. PhD dissertation, University of Washington, Seattle, WA (in press)Google Scholar
  5. Buchanan MC, Zellweger PT (1992) Specifying temporal behavior in hypermedia documents. In: Lucarella D, Nanard J, Nanard M, Paolini P (eds) Proc ACM Conference on Hypertext, ACM Press, New York, 262–271Google Scholar
  6. Buchanan MC, Zellweger PT (1993) Automatic temporal layout mechanisms, Proc ACM Multimedia'93 (in press)Google Scholar
  7. Buchanan MC, Zellweger PT, Pier K (1993) Multimedia documents as user interfaces (video)Google Scholar
  8. Bulterman DCA, van Rossum G, van Liere R (1991) A structure for transportable, dynamic multimedia documents. Proc 1991 Summer USENIX Conf, pp 137–155Google Scholar
  9. Cormen TH, Leiserson CE, Rivest RL (1990) Introduction to Algorithms. MIT Press, Cambridge, Mass, and McGraw-Hill, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  10. Dechter R, Meiri I, Pearl J (1989) Temporal constraint networks. Proc 1st Int Conf on Principles of Knowledge Representation and ReasoningGoogle Scholar
  11. Drapeau GD, Greenfield H (1991) MAEstro — a distributed multimedia authoring environment. Proc 1991 Summer USENIX Conf, pp 315–328Google Scholar
  12. Gibbs S (1991) Composite multimedia and active objects. Proc OOPSLA'91, pp 97–112Google Scholar
  13. Goldfarb CF (1991) HyTime: A standard for structured hypermedia exchange. IEEE Computer 24:81–84Google Scholar
  14. Hamakawa R, Sakagami H, Rekimoto J (1992) Audio and video extensions to graphical user interface toolkits. Proc 3rd Int Workshop on Network and Operating System Support for Digital Audio and Video, San Diego, pp 356–361Google Scholar
  15. Hillier FS, Lieberman GJ (1974) Operations Research. Holden-Day, San FranciscoGoogle Scholar
  16. Jaffar J, Michaylov S, Stuckey PJ, Yap RHC (1992) The CLP(R) language and system. ACM Trans Program Lang Syst 14:339–395Google Scholar
  17. Jeffay K, Stanat DF, Martel CU (1991) On non-pre-emptive scheduling of periodic and sporadic tasks. Proc 12th IEEE Real-Time Systems Symposium, pp 129–139Google Scholar
  18. Kim W, Kenchammana-Hosekote D, Lim EP, Srivastava J (1992) Synchronization Relation Tree: a model for temporal synchronization in multimedia presentations. University of Minnesota Computer Science Dept. Technical Report No. 92-42Google Scholar
  19. Knuth DE, Plass MF (1981) Breaking paragraphs into lines. Software-Practice and Experience 11:1119–1184Google Scholar
  20. Lawler E (1976) Combinatorial Optimization: Networks and Matroids. Holt, Rinehart and Winston, New York Chicago San FranciscoGoogle Scholar
  21. Little TDC, Ghafoor A (1990) Network considerations for distributed multimedia object composition and communication. IEEE Network 4:32–49Google Scholar
  22. MacroMind, Inc. (1989) MacroMind Director: Overview Manual, MacroMind, Inc. San Francisco, CAGoogle Scholar
  23. Nelson G (1985) Juno, a constraint-based graphics system. Proc SIG-GRAPH'85, pp 235–243Google Scholar
  24. Nicolaou C (1990) An architecture for real-time multimedia communication systems. IEEE J Selected Areas Commun 8:391–400Google Scholar
  25. Northcutt JD, Kuerner EM (1992) System support for time-critical applications. In: Herrtwich RG (ed) Network and operating system support for digital audio and video. Lecture Notes in Computer Science No. 614, Springer, Berlin Heidelberg New York, pp 242–254Google Scholar
  26. Ogawa R, Harada H, Kameko A (1990) Scenario-based hypermedia: a model and a system. In: Rizk A, Streitz N, Andre J (eds) Hypertext: concepts, systems, and applications, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, pp 38–51Google Scholar
  27. Poole L (1991) QuickTime in motion, MACWORLD 9:154–159Google Scholar
  28. Rossum van G, Jansen J, Mullender KS, Bulterman DCA (1993) CMIFed: a presentation environment for portable hypermedia documents. Proc ACM Multimedia'93 (in press)Google Scholar
  29. Steinmetz R (1990) Synchronization properties in multimedia systems. IEEE J Selected Areas of Commun 8:401–412Google Scholar
  30. Stotts PD, Furuta R (1990) Temporal hyperprogramming. J Visual Lang Comput 1:237–253Google Scholar
  31. Swinehart DC, Zellweger PT, Beach R, Hagmann R (1986) A structural view of the Cedar programming environment. ACM Trans Program Lang Syst 8:419–490Google Scholar
  32. Zellweger PT, Terry DB, Swinehart DC (1988) An overview of the Etherphone system and its applications. Proc 2nd IEEE Computer Workstation Conf, pp 160–168Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 1993

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Information Sciences and Technologies LaboratoryXerox PARCPalo AltoUSA

Personalised recommendations