Fluorescence emission spectra of plant leaves and plant constituents
The UV-B radiation (e.g. 337 nm) induced blue fluorescence (BF) and red chlorophyll fluorescence spectra (RF) of green leaves from plants with different leaf structure were determined and the possible nature and candidates of the blue fluorescence emission investigated. The blue fluorescence BF is characterized by a main maximum in the 450 nm region and in most cases by a second maximum/shoulder in the 530 nm region. The latter has been termed green fluorescence GF. The red chlorophyll fluorescence RF, in turn, exhibits two maxima in the 690 and 730 nm region. In general, the intensity of BF, GF and RF emission is significantly higher in the lower than the upper leaf side. The ratio of BF to RF emission (F450/F690) seems to vary from plant species to plant species. BF and GF emission spectra appear to be a mixed signal composed of the fluorescence emission of several substances of the plant vacuole and cell wall, which may primarily arise in the epidermis. Leaves with removed epidermis and chlorophyll-free leaves, however, still exhibit a BF and GF emission. Candidates for the blue fluorescence emission (λ max near 450 nm) are phenolic substances such as chlorogenic acid, caffeic acid, coumarins (aesculetin, scopoletin), stilbenes (t-stilbene, rhaponticin), the spectra of which are shown. GF emission (λ max near 530 nm) seems to be caused by substances like the alkaloid berberine and quercetin. Riboflavine, NADPH and phyllohydroquinoneK1 seem to contribute little to the BF and GF emission as compared to the other plant compounds. Purified naturalβ-carotene does not exhibit any blue fluorescence.
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