An empirical time-depth model for calculating water depth, northwest Gulf of Mexico
The velocity of sound in water varies nonlinearly with depth in temperate and tropical ocean basins, limiting the accuracy of representing water velocity with a single average value. A seventh-order polynomial provides an empirical model for converting seismic travel time to water depth in the northwest Gulf of Mexico. This method works best for the continental slope where relief can vary markedly over salt structures, whereas application on the shelf is limited by local and seasonal variations in water velocity. Calculated depths may differ from those of other techniques because of difficulties interpreting competent water bottom.
Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.
- Bellingham JG, Goudey CA, Consi TR, and Chryssostomidis C (1992) A small, long-range autonomous vehicle for deep ocean exploration. Proceedings of the Second (1992) International Offshore and Polar Engineering Conference 2:461–467Google Scholar
- Del Grosso VA (1974) New equation for the speed of sound in natural waters. Journal of the Acoustical Society of America 56:1084Google Scholar
- Garmer WR (1992) An improved acoustic communications system for autonomous underwater vehicles. International Underwater Systems Design 14:18–28Google Scholar
- Kelland NC and Forster LD (1991) Precision acoustic positioning of wellheads in deepwater. Marine Technology Society Conference Proceedings 2:898–910Google Scholar
- Lee PM, Lee JS, and Hong SW (1992) Experimental study of a position control system for ROV (remotely operated vehicle). Proceedings of the Second (1992) International Offshore and Polar Engineering Conference 2:533–539Google Scholar
- Lesnikowski NS (1991) The evolution of acoustic interferometry as applied to swath bathymetric surveying. Marine Technology Society Conference Proceedings 1:503–508Google Scholar
- Mawkin R and Hoffman C (1992) Throughwater communication. International Underwater Systems Design 14:12–17Google Scholar
- Molinari RL and Festa FJ (1978) Ocean thermal and velocity characteristics of the Gulf of Mexico relative to the placement of a moored OTEC plant. NOAA Technical Memorandum ERL AOML-33Google Scholar
- Urick RJ (1975) Principles of Underwater Sound for Engineers, 3rd ed. New York: McGraw-Hill, 342 ppGoogle Scholar
- Wilson WD (1960) Equation for the speed of sound in sea water. Journal of the Acoustical Society of America 32:1357Google Scholar