Documenta Ophthalmologica

, Volume 91, Issue 1, pp 57–85

Nearwork-induced transient myopia

A critical review
  • Editha Ong
  • Kenneth J. Ciuffreda

DOI: 10.1007/BF01204624

Cite this article as:
Ong, E. & Ciuffreda, K.J. Doc Ophthalmol (1995) 91: 57. doi:10.1007/BF01204624


The literature on nearwork-induced transient myopia (NITM) is reviewed, with NITM being defined as the short-term myopic far point shift immediately following a sustained near visual task. A majority of these investigations demonstrated the presence of NITM for a variety of test parameters, e.g., visual acuity, contrast sensitivity and far point. Overall, these studies reported relatively small myopic shifts, with a mean of approximately 0.40 D and a range from 0.12 to 1.30 D. The subsequent decay is characterized by an exponential function with a relatively short time course. While the precise etiology and implications of NITM remain unclear, speculations regarding its origin and relevance to clinical myopia are discussed. Studies that did not demonstrate NITM are also reviewed.

Key words

Accommodation Retinal defocus Transient myopia Vergence 



nearwork-induced transient myopia

Copyright information

© Kluwer Academic Publishers 1995

Authors and Affiliations

  • Editha Ong
    • 1
  • Kenneth J. Ciuffreda
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Vision SciencesSUNY/State College of OptometryNew York CityUSA

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