Wireless Networks

, Volume 2, Issue 1, pp 63–75 | Cite as

Throughput of selective-repeat ARQ with time diversity in Markov channels with unreliable feedback

  • Michele Zorzi
  • Ramesh R. Rao


In this paper, a modified form of the ARQ selective repeat protocol with timer control is studied. Transmissions on both the forward and the reverse channels are assumed to experience Markovian errors and therefore the feedback is unreliable. Feedback error recovery is made possible through the use of time diversity. Using results from renewal theory, exact results for the throughput of the protocol are evaluated. In order to overcome the complexity of the exact analytical technique, lower and upper bounds are developed. Simulation results, that confirm the analysis and document the tightness of the bounds are also shown, and a number of implementation issues are discussed. An application to mobile radio is also presented. It is shown that the use of an appropriate degree of time diversity makes it possible to approach the ideal protocol performance obtained with perfect feedback.


Communication Network Time Diversity Modify Form Exact Result Time Control 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. [1]
    S. Lin, D.J. Costello Jr. and M.J. Miller, Automatic-repeat-request error control schemes, IEEE Commun. Mag. 22 (1984) 5–17.Google Scholar
  2. [2]
    A.S. Tanenbaum,Computer Networks, 2nd Ed. (Prentice Hall, Englewood Cliffs, 1988).Google Scholar
  3. [3]
    E.N. Gilbert, Capacity of a burst-noise channel, Bell System Tech. J. 39 (1960) 1253–1266.Google Scholar
  4. [4]
    L.N. Kanal and A.R.K. Sastry, Models for channels with memory and their applications to error control, Proc. IEEE 66 (1978) 724–744.Google Scholar
  5. [5]
    D. Towsley, A statistical analysis of ARQ protocols operating in a nonindependent error environment, IEEE Trans. Commun. COM 29 (1981) 971–981.Google Scholar
  6. [6]
    D.L. Lu and J.F. Chang, Performance of ARQ protocols in nonindependent channel errors, IEEE Trans. Commun. COM 41 (1993) 721–730.Google Scholar
  7. [7]
    S.R. Kim and C.K. Un, Throughput analysis for two ARQ schemes using combined transition matrix, IEEE Trans. Commun. COM 40 (1992) 1679–1683.Google Scholar
  8. [8]
    Y.J. Cho and C.K. Un, Performance analysis of ARQ error controls under Markovian block error pattern, IEEE Trans. Commun. COM 42 (1994) 2051–2061.Google Scholar
  9. [9]
    M. Zorzi and R.R. Rao, Throughput analysis of ARQ Go-Back-N protocol in Markov channels with unreliable feedback,Proc. IEEE ICC'95 (1995) pp. 1232–1237.Google Scholar
  10. [10]
    L.F. Chang, Throughput estimation of ARQ protocols for a Rayleigh fading channel using fade- and interfade-duration statistics, IEEE Trans. Veh. Tech. VT 40 (1991) 223–229.Google Scholar
  11. [11]
    J.C.-J. Chuang, Comparison of two ARQ protocols in a Rayleigh fading channel, IEEE Trans. Veh. Tech. VT 39 (1990) 367–373.Google Scholar
  12. [12]
    M.J. Miller and S. Lin, The analysis of some selective-repeat ARQ schemes with finite receiver buffer, IEEE Trans. Commun. COM 29 (1981) 1307–1315.Google Scholar
  13. [13]
    E.J. Weldon Jr., An improved selective-repeat ARQ strategy, IEEE Trans. Commun. COM 30 (1982) 480–486.Google Scholar
  14. [14]
    N. Shacham, Queueing analysis of a selective-repeat ARQ schemes with finite receiver buffer,Proc. IEEE INFOCOM'87 (1987) 512–520.Google Scholar
  15. [15]
    J.F. Chang and T.H. Yang, End-to-end delay of an adaptive selective repeat ARQ protocol, IEEE Trans. Commun. COM 42 (1994) 2926–2928.Google Scholar
  16. [16]
    S.H. Ross,Stochastic Processes (Wiley, New York, 1983).Google Scholar
  17. [17]
    R.A. Howard,Dynamic Probabilistic Systems (Wiley, New York, 1971).Google Scholar
  18. [18]
    M. Zorzi, R.R. Rao and L.B. Milstein, On the accuracy of a first-order Markov model for data block transmission on fading channels,Proc IEEE ICUPC'95 (1995) pp. 211–215.Google Scholar
  19. [19]
    W.C. Jakes, Jr.,Microwave Mobile Communications (Wiley, New York, 1974).Google Scholar

Copyright information

© J.C. Baltzer AG 1996

Authors and Affiliations

  • Michele Zorzi
    • 1
  • Ramesh R. Rao
    • 1
  1. 1.Center for Wireless Communications, Department of Electrical and Computer EngineeringUniversity of California at San DiegoLa JollaUSA

Personalised recommendations