Experimental & Applied Acarology

, Volume 7, Issue 1, pp 71–80 | Cite as

Transmission of Lyme disease spirochetes (Borrelia burgdorferi)

  • Joseph Piesman
Article

Abstract

The field and laboratory evidence incriminating nymphalIxodes dammini as the main vectors ofBorrelia burgdorferi is substantial. Furthermore, other members of theIxodes (Ixodes) ricinus ‘complex’, includingI. ricinus, I. persulcatus, I. pacificus, andI. scapularis, are competent vectors of the Lyme disease spirochete. Although ticks in other genera are also naturally infected withB. burgdorferi, experimental evidence suggests thatAmblyomma andDermacentor ticks are inefficient vectors of these spirochetes. Current research on the kinetics ofB. burgdorferi growth within ticks demonstrates that Lyme disease spirochetes are dramatically influenced by physiological events during the tick's life-cycle.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Afzelius, A., 1921.Erythema chronicum migrans. Acta Derm. Venereol., 2: 120–125.Google Scholar
  2. Ai, C.-X., Wen, Y.-X., Zhang, J.-G., Wang, S.-S., Qiu, Q., Shi, Z., Li, D., Chen, D., Liu, X. and Zhao, J., 1988. Clinical manifestations and epidemiological characteristics of Lyme disease in Hailin County, Heilongjiang Province, China. Ann. N.Y. Acad. Sci., 539: 302–313.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. Anderson, J.F., Magnarelli, L.A., Burgdorfer, W. and Barbour, A.G., 1983. Spirochetes inIxodes dammini and mammals from Connecticut. Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg., 32: 818–824.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. Anderson, J.F., Johnson, R.C., Magnarelli, L.A. and Hyde, F.W., 1985. Identification of endemic foci of Lyme disease: isolation ofBorrelia burgdorferi from feral rodents and ticks (Dermacentor variabilis). J. Clin. Microbiol., 22: 36–38.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. Benach, J.L., Coleman, J.L., Skinner, R.A. and Bosler, E.M., 1987. AdultIxodes dammini on rabbits: A hypothesis for the development and transmission ofBorrelia burgdorferi. J. Infect. Dis., 155: 1300–1306.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. Burgdorfer, W., 1984a. The New Zealand white rabbit: An experimental host for infecting ticks with Lyme disease spirochetes. Yale J. Biol. Med., 57: 609–612.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. Burgdorfer, W., 1984b. Discovery of the Lyme disease spirochete and its relation to tick vectors. Yale J. Biol. Med. 57: 515–520.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. Burgdorfer, W., 1986. Discovery of the Lyme disease spirochete: A historical review. Zentralbl. Bakteriol. Hyg. A., 263: 7–10.Google Scholar
  9. Burgdorfer, W. and Gage, K.L., 1986. Susceptibility of the black-legged tick,Ixodes scapularis, to the Lyme disease spirochete,Borrelia burgdorferi. Zentralbl. Bakteriol. Hyg. A., 263: 15–20.Google Scholar
  10. Burgdorfer, W. and Gage, K.L., 1987. Susceptibility of the hispid cotton rat (Sigmodon hispidus) to the Lyme disease spirochete (Borrelia burgdorferi). Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg., 37: 624–628.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. Burgdorfer, W., Barbour, A.G., Hayes, S.F., Benach, J.L., Grunwaldt, E. and Davis, J.P., 1982. Lyme disease—A tick-borne spirochetosis? Science, 216: 1317–1319.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. Burgdorfer, W., Barbour, A.G., Hayes, S.F., Peter, O. and Aeschlimann, A., 1983.Erythema chronicum migrans—a tickborne spirochetosis. Acta Trop., 40: 79–83.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. Burgdorfer, W., Lane, R.S., Barbour, A.G., Gresbrink, R.A., and Anderson, J.R., 1985. The western black-legged tick,Ixodes pacificus: A vector ofBorrelia burgdorferi. Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg., 34: 925–930.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. Burgess, E.C. and Patrican, L.A. 1987. Oral infection ofPeromyscus maniculatus withBorrelia burgdorferi and subsequent transmission byIxodes dammini. Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg., 36: 402–407.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. Carey, A.B., Krinsky, W.L. and Main, A.J., 1980.Ixodes dammini (Acari: Ixodidae) and associated ixodid ticks in south-central Connecticut, U.S.A. J. Med. Entomol., 17: 89–99.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. Donahue, J.G., Piesman, J. and Spielman, A., 1987. Reservoir competence of white-footed mice for Lyme disease spirochetes. Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg., 36: 92–96.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. Falco, R.C. and Fish, D., 1988. Prevalence ofIxodes dammini near the homes of Lyme disease patients in Westchester County, New York, Am. J. Epidemiol., 127: 826–830.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. Godsey, M.S. Jr., Amundson, T.E., Burgess, E.C., Schell, W., Davis, J.P., Kaslow, R. and Edelman, R., 1987. Lyme disease ecology in Wisconsin: Distribution and host preferences ofIxodes dammini, and prevalence of antibody toBorrelia burgdorferi in small mammals. Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg., 37: 180–187.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. Hoogstraal, H., 1981. Changing patterns of tickborne diseases in modern society. Annu. Rev. Entomol., 26: 75–99.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. Kawabata, M., Baba, S., Iguchi, K., Yumaguti, N. and Russell, H., 1987. Lyme disease in Japan and its possible incriminated tick vector,Ixodes persulcatus. J. Infec. Dis., 156: 854.Google Scholar
  21. Korenberg, E.I., Kryuchechnikov, V.N., Ananyina, Y.V. and Cherukha, Y.G., 1986. Prerequisites of the existence of Lyme disease in the U.S.S.R. Zentralbl. Bakteriol. Hyg. A., 263: 471–472.Google Scholar
  22. Krampitz, H.E., 1986. In vivo isolation and maintenance of some wild strains of European hard tick spirochetes in mammalian and arthropod hosts. Zentralbl. Bakteriol. Hyg. A., 263: 21–28.Google Scholar
  23. Lane, R.S., and Burgdorfer, W., 1987. Transovarial and transstadial passage ofBorrelia burgdorferi in the western black-legged tick,Ixodes pacificus (Acari: Ixodidae). Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg., 37: 188–192.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. Lane, R.S. and Lavoie, P.E., 1988. Lyme borreliosis in California: ecological and epidemiological studies. Ann. N.Y. Acad. Sci., 539: 192–203.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. Levine, J.F., Wilson, M.L. and Spielman, A., 1985. Mice as reservoirs of the Lyme disease spirochete. Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg., 34: 355–360.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. Magnarelli, L.A., Anderson, J.F., Apperson, C.S., Fish, D., Johnson, R.C. and Chappel, W.A., 1986a. Spirochetes in ticks and antibodies toBorrelia burgdorferi in white-tailed deer from Connecticut, New York State, and North Carolina, J. Wildl. Dis., 22: 178–188.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. Magnarelli, L.A., Anderson, J.F. and Barbour, A.G., 1986b. The etiologic agent of Lyme disease in deer flies, horse flies, and mosquitoes. J. Infect. Dis., 154: 355–358.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. Magnarelli, L.A., Anderson, J.F. and Fish, D., 1987a. Transovarial transmission ofBorrelia burgdorferi inIxodes dammini (Acari: Ixodidae). J. Infect. Dis., 156: 234–236.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. Magnarelli, L.A., Freier, J.E. and Anderson, J.F., 1987b. Experimental infections of mosquitoes withBorrelia burgdorferi, the etiologic agent of Lyme disease. J. Infect. Dis., 156: 694–695.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. Main, A.J., Carey, A.B., Carey, M.G. and Goodwin, R.H., 1982. ImmatureIxodesdammini (Acari: Ixodidae) on small mammals in Connecticut, U.S.A., J. Med. Entomol., 19: 655–664.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. Piesman, J. and Sinsky, R.J., 1988. Ability ofIxodes scapularis, Dermacentor variabilis, andAmblyomma americanum (Acari: Ixodidae) to acquire, maintain, and transmit Lyme disease spirochetes (Borrelia burgdorferi). J. Med. Entomol., 25: 336–339.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. Piesman, J. and Spielman, A., 1979. Host-associations and seasonal abundance of immatureIxodes dammini in southeastern Massachusetts. Ann. Entomol. Soc. Am., 72: 829–832.Google Scholar
  33. Piesman, J., Spielman, A., Etkind, P., Ruebush II, T.K. and Juranek, D.D., 1979. role of deer in the epizootiology ofBabesia microti in Massachusetts, U.S.A. J. Med. Entomol., 15: 537–540.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. Piesman, J., Donahue, J.G., Mather, T.N., and Spielman, A., 1986a. Transovarially acquired Lyme disease spirochetes (Borrelia burgdorferi) in field-collected larvalIxodes dammini (Acari: Ixodidae). J. Med. Entomol., 23: 219.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. Piesman, J., Mather, T.N., Donahue, J.G., Levine, J., Campbell, J.D., Karakashian, S.J. and Spielman, A., 1986b. Comparative prevalence ofBabesia microti andBorrelia burgdorferi in four populations ofIxodes dammini in eastern Massachusetts. Acta Trop. 43: 263–270.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. Piesman, J., Hicks, T.C., Sinsky, R.J. and Obiri, G., 1987a. Simultaneous transmission ofBo burgdorferi andBabesia microti by individual nymphalIxodes dammini ticks. J. Clin. Microbiol., 25: 2012–2013.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. Piesman, J., Mather, T.N., Dammin, G.J. Telford III, S.R., Lastavica, C.C. and Spielman, A., 1987b. Seasonal variation of transmission risk of Lyme disease and human babesiosis. Am. J. Epidemiol., 126: 1187–1189.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. Piesman, J., Mather, T.N., Sinsky, R.J. and Spielman, A., 1987c. Duration of tick attachment andBorrelia burgdorferi transmission. J. Clin. Microbiol., 25: 557–558.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. Radda, A., Burger, I., Stanek, G. and Wewalka, G., 1986. Austrian hard ticks as vectors ofBorrelia burgdorferi, overview. Zentralbl. Bakteriol. Hyg. A., 263: 79–82.Google Scholar
  40. Rawlings, J.A., 1986. Lyme disease in Texas. Zentralbl. Bakteriol. Hyg. A., 263: 483–487.Google Scholar
  41. Ribeiro, J.M.C., Mather, T.N., Piesman, J. and Spielman, A., 1987. Dissemination and salivary delivery of Lyme disease spirochetes in vector ticks (Acari: Ixodidae). J. Med. Entomol., 24: 201–205.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  42. Schulze, T.L., Bowen, G.S., Bosler, E.M., Lakat, M.F., Parkin, W.E., Altman, R., Ormiston, B.G. and Shisler, J.K., 1984.Amblyomma americanum: a potential vector of Lyme disease in New Jersey. Science, 224: 1601–603.Google Scholar
  43. Schulze, T.L., Bowen, G.S., Lakat, M.F., Parkin, W.E. and Shisler, J.K., 1985. The role of adultIxodes dammini (Acari: Ixodidae) in the transmission of Lyme disease in New Jersey, U.S.A. J. Med. Entomol. 22: 88–93.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  44. Schulze, T.L., Lakat, M.F., Parkin, W.E., Shisler, J.K., Charette, D.J. and Bosler, E.M., 1986. Comparison of rates of infection by the Lyme disease spirochete in selected populations ofIxodes dammini andAmblyomma americanum (Acari: Ixodidae). Zentralbl. Bakteriol. Hyg. A., 263: 72–78.Google Scholar
  45. Stanek, G., Burger, I., Hirschi, A., Wewalka, G. and Radda, A., 1986.Borrelia transfer by ticks during their life cycle. Zentralbl. Bakteriol. Hyg. A., 263: 29–33.Google Scholar
  46. Steere, A.C., Broderick, T.F. and Malawista, S.E., 1978.Erythema chronicum migrans and Lyme arthritis: Epidemiologic evidence for a tick vector. Am. J. Epidemiol., 108: 312–321.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  47. Steere, A.C., Sardinas, A.V., Lavoie, P.E., Birnbaum, N.J., Caputo, R.V. and Davis, J.P., 1981. Lyme disease—United States, 1980. Morb. Mortal. Wkly. Rep., 30: 489–497.Google Scholar
  48. Steere, A.C., Grodzicki, R.L., Kornblatt, A.N., Craft, J.E., Barbour, A.G., Burgdorfer, W., Schmid, G.P., Johnson, E. and Malawista, S.E., 1983. The spirochetal etiology of Lyme disease. N. Eng. J. Med., 308: 733–742.Google Scholar
  49. Steere, A.C., Snydman, D., Murray, P., Mensch, J., Main, A.J., Jr., Wallis, R.C., Shope, R.E. and Malawista, S.e., 1986. Historical perspectives of Lyme disease. Zentralbl. Bakteriol. Hyg. A., 263: 3–6.Google Scholar
  50. Wallis, R.C., Brown, S.E., Kloter, K.O. and Main, A.J., Jr., 1978.Erythema chronicum migrans and Lyme arthritis: Field study of ticks. Am. J. Epidemiol., 108: 322–327.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  51. Wilson, M.L. and Spielman, A., 1985. Seasonal activity of immatureIxodes dammini (Acari: Ixodidae). J. Med. Entomol., 22: 408–414.PubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Elsevier Science Publishers B.V. 1989

Authors and Affiliations

  • Joseph Piesman
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Epidemiology, School of Public HealthUniversity of Alabama at BirminghamBirminghamUSA

Personalised recommendations