Brain Topography

, Volume 9, Issue 1, pp 31–37 | Cite as

Task-specific magnetic fields from the left human frontal cortex

  • Luis F. H. Basile
  • Panagiotis G. Simos
  • Ina M. Tarkka
  • Donald G. Brunder
  • Andrew C. Papanicolaou
Article

Summary

In this study we attempted to extend our previous results on regional specialization of frontal cortical function in humans, by means of magnetoencephalography (MEG). We used a verbal task and predicted that some part of the left frontal lobe would be active during engagement in that task, since the left hemisphere is known to be implicated in language. We did not require a motor response because in previous experiments we observed bilateral frontal magnetic activity, and we suspected that it was due to the addition of movement-related fields to our recordings. Six right handed subjects (three males and three females) participated in the study. The task consisted in silently counting the number of word pairs that matched with respect to semantic category. Experimental runs were composed by series of 120 trials or word pairs. All six subjects presented dipolar magnetic field distributions on the left fronto-temporal area of the scalp, but not on the right, during different portions of the trial duration. These fields were successfully modeled as equivalent current dipoles (ECDs). The spatial ECD coordinates were translated onto magnetic resonance image (MRI) coordinates for each subject. The dipole positions were typically near the cortical surface corresponding to areas 6 and 44 of Brodmann. No dipole-like sources were observed in the right frontal lobe.

Key words

Magnetoencephalography Frontal cortex Verbal task Hemispheric asymmetry 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Basile, L.F.H., Rogers, R.L., Bourbon, W.T. and Papanicolaou, A.C. Slow magnetic fields from human frontal cortex. Electroenceph. clin. Neurophysiol., 1994, 90:157–165.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. Basile, L.F.H., Brunder, D.G. and Papanicolaou, A.C. Magnetic fields from human prefrontal cortex differ during two recognition tasks. Int. J. Psychophysiol., (in press 1996).Google Scholar
  3. Cohen, R.M., Semple, W.E., Gross, M., King, A.C. and Nordahl, T.E. Metabolic brain pattern of sustained auditory discrimination. Exp. Brain Res., 1992, 92:165–172.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. Courtney, S.N., Ungerlieder, L.G., Keil, K. and Haxby, J.V. Object and spatial visual working memory activate separate neural systems in human cortex. Cerebral Cortex, 1996, 6:39–49.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. Eckenstein, F. and Baughman, R.W. Cholinergic innervation in cerebral cortex. In: Cerebral Cortex. Vol 6: Chap 3. Jones, E.G. and Peters, A. (Eds). Plenum Press. New York, 1987.Google Scholar
  6. Fallon, J.H. and Loughlin, S.E. Monoamine innervation of cerebral cortex and a theory of the role of monoamines in cerebral cortex and basal ganglia. In: Cerebral Cortex. Vol 6: Chap 2. Jones, E.G. and Peters, A. (Eds). Plenum Press. New York, 1987.Google Scholar
  7. Frith, C.D., Friston, K., Liddle, P.F. and Frackowiak, R.S. Willed action and the prefrontal cortex in man: a study with PET. Proc. R. Soc. Lond. B, 1991, 244:241–246.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. Fuster, J.M. The Prefrontal Cortex (2nd ed). Raven Press. New York, 1989.Google Scholar
  9. Hämäläinen, M., Hari, R., Ilmoniemi, R.J., Knuutila, J. and Lounasmaa, O.V. Magnetoencephalography — theory, instrumentation, and applications to noninvasive studies of the working human brain. Reviews of Modern Physics, 1993, 65:413–497.Google Scholar
  10. Hämäläinen, M.S. and Sarvas, J. Realistic conductivity model of the human head for interpretation of neuromagnetic data. IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng., 1989, 36:165–171.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. Ioannides, A.A., Muratore, R., Balish, M. and Sato, S. In vivo validation of distributed source solutions for the biomagnetic inverse problem. Brain Topography, 1993, 5:263–273.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. Kaufman, L., Schwartz, B., Salustri, C. and Williamson, S.J. Modulation of spontaneous brain activity during mental imagery. J. of Cogn. Neurosci., 1990, 2:124–132.Google Scholar
  13. Kaufman, L., Kaufman, J.H. and Wang, J. On cortical folds and neuromagnetic fields. Electroenceph. clin. Neurophysiol., 1991, 79:211–226.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. Lewine, J.D. Neuromagnetic techniques for the noninvasive analysis of brain function. In: Noninvasive Techniques in Biology and Medicine. Chap 3. Freeman, S.E.; Fukushima, E. and Greene, E.R. (Eds). San Francisco Press, San Francisco, 1990.Google Scholar
  15. McCarthy, G., Blamire, A.M., Rothman, D.L., Gruetter, R. and Shulman, R.G. Echo-planar magnetic resonance imaging studies of frontal cortex activation during word generation in humans. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA, 1993, 90:4952–4956.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. Petrides, M., Alivisatos, B., Evans, A.C. and Meyer, E. Dissociation of human mid-dorsolateral from posterior dorsolateral frontal cortex in memory processing. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA, 1993a, 90:873–877.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. Petrides, M., Alivisatos, B., Meyer, E. and Evans, A.C. Functional activation of the human frontal cortex during the performance of verbal working memory tasks. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA, 1993b, 90:878–882.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. Rogers, R.L., Baumann, S.B., Papanicolaou, A.C., Bourbon, T.W., Alagarsamy, S. and Eisenberg, H.M. Localization of the P3 sources using magnetoencephalography and magnetic resonance imaging. Electroenceph. clin. Neurophysiol., 1991, 79:308–321.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. Rogers, R.L., Papanicolaou, A.C., Baumann, S.B. and Eisenberg, H.M. Late magnetic fields and positive evoked potentials following infrequent and unpredictable omissions of visual stimuli. Electroenceph. clin. Neurophysiol., 1992, 83:146–152.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. Rogers, R.L., Basile, L.F.H., Papanicolaou, A.C., Bourbon, T.W. and Eisenberg, H.M. Visual evoked magnetic fields reveal activity in the superior temporal sulcus. Electroenceph. clin. Neurophysiol., 1993a, 86:344–347.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. Rogers, R.L., Basile, L.F.H., Papanicolaou, A.C. and Eisenberg, H.M. Magnetoencephalography reveals two distinct sources associated with late positive evoked potentials during visual oddball tasks. Cerebral Cortex, 1993b, 3:163–169.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. Roland, P.E. and Friberg, L. Localization of cortical areas activated by thinking. J. Neurophysiol., 1985, 53:1219–1243.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. Shallice, T., Fletcher, P., Frith, C.D., Grasby, P., Frackowiak, R.S.J. and Doland, R.J. Brain regions associated with acquisition and retrieval of verbal episodic memory. Nature, 1994, 368:633–635.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. Smith, E.E., Jonides, J. and Koeppe, R.A. Dissociating verbal and spatial working memory using PET. Cerebral Cortex, 1996, 6:11–20.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. Tanila, H., Carlson, S., Linnankoski, I. and Kahila, H. Regional distribution of functions in dorsolateral cortex of the monkey. Behav. Brain Res., 1993, 53:63–71.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. Wang, J., Kaufman, L. and Williamson, S.J. Imaging regional changes in the spontaneous activity of the brain: an extension of the minimum-norm least-squares estimate. Electroenceph. clin. Neurophysiol., 1993, 86:36–50.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. Watanabe, M. Prefrontal unit activity during associative learning in the monkey. Exp. Brain Res., 1990, 80:296–309.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. Williamson, S.J. and Kaufman, L. Analysis of neuromagnetic signals. In: Handbook of Electroencephalography and Clinical Neurophysiology. Human Event-Related Potentials (revised series vol.1) Gevins, A.S. and Remond, A. (Eds.). Elsevier Science Publishers, 1987, 405–448.Google Scholar
  29. Wilson, F.A.W., Scalaidhe, S.P.O. and Goldman-Rakic, P.S. Dissociations of object and spatial processing domains in primate prefrontal cortex. Science, 1993, 260:1995–1958.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Human Sciences Press, Inc. 1996

Authors and Affiliations

  • Luis F. H. Basile
    • 2
  • Panagiotis G. Simos
    • 2
  • Ina M. Tarkka
    • 2
  • Donald G. Brunder
    • 1
  • Andrew C. Papanicolaou
    • 2
  1. 1.Office of Academic ComputingUniversity of Texas Medical Branch at GalvestonGalvestonUSA
  2. 2.Department of NeurosurgeryUniversity of Texas - Houston Health Science CenterHoustonUSA

Personalised recommendations