, Volume 3, Issue 2, pp 181–201

Alternating current electrode polarization

  • H. P. Schwan


This article summarizes principles of alternating current electrode polarization. The importance of alternating current electrode polarization in biological impedance studies is discussed. The following topics are treated in detail: Definition of Electrode Polarization Impedance; Linearity and Superpositioning Principle; Frequency Dependence of Electrode Impedance; Preparation of Electrodes (Optimal current density for platinum black application, Stability of electrode impedance, Cell design for platinization purposes, Aging and cleaning of electrodes); Effect of Electrode Polarization on Biological Impedances; Effects of Biological Matter on Electrode Polarization; Techniques to Correct for Electrode Polarization (Electrode distance variation technique, Large electrode distance, Graphical technique, Substitution technique, Frequency variation technique, Four-electrode technique); Transient Response of Electrodes; Microelectrodes.


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 1966

Authors and Affiliations

  • H. P. Schwan
    • 1
  1. 1.Electromedical Division, The Moore School of Electrical EngineeringUniversity of PennsylvaniaPhiladelphia

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