Journal of Neurocytology

, Volume 24, Issue 10, pp 775–781 | Cite as

Remyelination of mouse spinal cord axons demyelinated by local injection of lysolecithin

  • N. D. Jeffery
  • W. F. Blakemore


Local injections of lysolecithin are commonly used to produce areas of demyelination in the CNS. For the mouse, the demyelinating initial phase of lesion development has been described previously but the spontaneous repair which follows has not. In this study we describe the morphological sequelae which result from the injection of 2 μl of 1% lysolecithin into the spinal cord of adult mice. Lesion length was variable, extending 8mm or more in 33% of lesioned animals. By 7 days after injection very little extracellular myelin debris was detected and remyelination had commenced. Remyelination progressed rapidly so that almost all axons were invested by myelin sheaths by 23 days. Remyelination was accompanied by a prominent astrocytosis. The long lesion length and the rapidity of repair has important implications for studies designed to assess the ability of transplanted myelinogenic cells to migrate towards demyelinating lesions.


Spinal Cord Important Implication Initial Phase Adult Mouse Myelin Sheath 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Armstrong, R. C., Harvath, L. &Dubois-Dalcq, M. E. (1990) Type-1 astrocytes and oligodendrocyte-type-2 astrocyte glial progenitors migrate towards distinct molecules.Journal of Neuroscience Research 27, 400–7.Google Scholar
  2. Baron Van Evercooren, A., Duhamel-Clerin, E., Boutry, J. J., Hauw, J. J. &Gumpel, M. (1993) Pathways of migration of Schwann cells in the demyelinated mouse spinal cord.Journal of Neuroscience Research 35, 428–38.Google Scholar
  3. Barres, B. A., Hart, I. K., Coles, H. S. R., Burne, J. F., Voyvodic, J. T., Richardson, W. D. &Raff, M. C. (1992) Cell death and control of cell survival in the oligodendrocyte lineage.Cell 70, 31–46.Google Scholar
  4. Barres, B. A., Raff, M. C., Gaese, F., Bartke, I., Dechant, G. &Barde, Y-A. (1994) A crucial role for neurotrophin-3 in oligodendrocyte development.Nature 367, 371–5.Google Scholar
  5. Benveniste, E. N. (1992) Inflammatory cytokines within the central nervous system: sources, function and mechanism of action.American Journal of Physiology 263, 1–16.Google Scholar
  6. Besnard, F., Perraud, F., Sensenbrenner, M. &Labourdette, G. (1989) Effects of acidic and basic fibroblast growth factors on proliferation and maturation of cultured rat oligodendrocytes.International Journal of Developmental Neuroscience 7, 401–9.Google Scholar
  7. Blakemore, W. F. (1975) Remyelination by Schwann cells of axons demyelinated by intraspinal injections of 6-aminonicotinamide.Journal of Neurocytology 4, 745–7.Google Scholar
  8. Blakemore, W. F. (1976) Invasion of Schwann cells into the spinal cord of the rat following local injections of lysolecithin.Neuropathology and Applied Neurobiology 2, 21–39.Google Scholar
  9. Blakemore, W. F. (1978) Observations on remyelination in the rabbit spinal cord following demyelination induced by lysolecithin.Neuropathology and Applied Neurobiology 4, 47–59.Google Scholar
  10. Blakemore, W. F. (1982) Ethidium bromide induced demyelination in the spinal cord of the cat.Neuropathology and Applied Neurobiology 8, 365–75.Google Scholar
  11. Blakemore, W. F. &Crang, A. J. (1989) The relationship between type-1 astrocytes, Schwann cells and oligodendrocytes following transplantation of glial cell cultures into demyelinating lesions in the adult rat spinal cord.Journal of Neurocytology 18, 519–28.Google Scholar
  12. Blakemore, W. F., Eames, R. A., Smith, K. J. &Mcdonald, W. F. (1977) Remyelination in the spinal cord of the cat following intraspinal injections of lysolecithin.Journal of the Neurological Sciences 33, 31–43.Google Scholar
  13. Blakemore, W. F., Crang, A. J., Franklin, R. J. M., Tang, K. &Ryder, S. (1995) Glial cell transplants that are subsequently rejected can be used to influence regeneration of glial cell environments in the CNS.Glia 13, 79–91.Google Scholar
  14. Crang, A. J. &Blakemore, W. F. (1991) Remyelination of demyelinated rat axons by transplanted mouse oligodendrocytes.Glia 4, 305–13.Google Scholar
  15. Duncan, I. D., Aguayo, A. J., Bunge, R. P. &Wood, P. M. (1981) Transplantation of rat Schwann cells grown in tissue culture into the mouse spinal cord.Journal of the Neurological Sciences 49, 241–52.Google Scholar
  16. Eddleston, M. &Mucke, L. (1993) Molecular profile of reactive astrocytes-implications for their role in neurologic disease.Neuroscience 54, 15–36.Google Scholar
  17. Franklin, R. J. M. &Blakemore, W. F. (1993) Migration of Schwann cells. Requirements for Schwann cell migration within CNS environments: a viewpoint.International Journal of Neuroscience 11, 641–9.Google Scholar
  18. Franklin, R. J. M. &Blakemore, W. F. (1995) Reconstruction of the glia limitans by sub-arachnoid transplantation of astrocyte-enriched cultures.Microscopy Research and Technique, in press.Google Scholar
  19. Gilson, J. &Blakemore, W. F. (1993) Failure of remyelination in areas of demyelination produced in the spinal cord of old rats.Neuropathology and Applied Neurobiology 19, 173–81.Google Scholar
  20. Graca, D. L. &Beakemore, W. F. (1986) Delayed remyelination in rat spinal cord following ethidium bromide injection.Neuropathology and Applied Neurobiology 12, 593–605.Google Scholar
  21. Grinspan, J., Wrabetz, E. &Kamholz, J. (1993) Oligodendrocyte maturation and myelin gene expression in PDGF-treated cultures from rat cerebral white matter.Journal of Neurocytology 22, 322–33.Google Scholar
  22. Hall, S. M. (1972) The effect of injections of lysopho-sphatidyl choline into white matter of the adult mouse spinal cord.Journal of Cell Science 10, 535–46.Google Scholar
  23. Kahn, M. A. &Devellis, J. (1994) Regulation of an oligodendrocyte progenitor cell line by the interleukin-6 family of cytokines.Glia 12, 87–98.Google Scholar
  24. Lipsitz, D., Archer, D. R. &Duncan, I. D. (1995) Acute dispersal of glial cells following transplantation into the myelin deficient rat spinal cord.Glia, in press.Google Scholar
  25. Louis, J-C-, Magal, E., Takayama, S. &Varon, S. (1993) CNTF protection of oligodendrocytes against natural and tumor necrosis factor-induced death.Science 259, 689–92.Google Scholar
  26. Ludwin, S. K. (1980) Chronic demyelination inhibits remyelination in the central nervous system. An analysis of contributing factors.Laboratory Investigations 43, 382–7.Google Scholar
  27. Merrill, J. E. (1991) Effects of interleukin-1 and tumor necrosis factor-α on astrocytes, microglia, oligodendrocytes, and glial precursorsin vitro.Developmental Neuroscience 13, 130–7.Google Scholar
  28. Nathan, C. F. (1987) Secretory products of macrophages.Journal of Clinical Investigation 79, 319–26.Google Scholar
  29. Noble, M., Murray, K., Stroobant, P., Waterfield, M. D. &Riddle, P. (1988) Platelet-derived growth factor promotes division and motility and inhibits premature differentiation of the oligodendrocyte/type-2 astrocyte progenitor cell.Nature 333, 560–2.Google Scholar
  30. Olby, N. J., O'Leary, M. T., Targett, M. P. &Blakemore, W. F. (1995) The effect of injection technique on the passive spread of astrocytes following transplantation into rat spinal cord white matter.Restorative Neurology and Neuroscience 7, 171–4.Google Scholar
  31. Richardson, W. D., Pringle, N., Mosley, M. J., Westermark, B. &Dubois-Dalcq, M. (1988) A role for platelet derived growth factor in normal gliogenesis in the central nervous system.Cell 53, 309–19.Google Scholar
  32. Scolding, N. J., Zajicek, J. P., Wood, N. &Compston, D. A. S. (1994) The pathogenesis of demyelinating disease.Progress in Neurobiology 43, 143–73.Google Scholar
  33. Seemaj, K. W. &Raine, C. S. (1988) Tumor necrosis factor mediates myelin and oligodendrocyte damagein vitro.Annals of Neurology 23, 339–46.Google Scholar
  34. Vignais, L., Nait Ouesmar, B., Mellouk, F., Gout, O., Labourdette, G., Baron-Van Evercooren, A. &Gumpel, M. (1993) Transplantation of oligodendrocyte precursors in the adult demyelinated spinal cord: migration and remyelination.Developmental Neuroscience 11, 603–12.Google Scholar
  35. Wolswijk, G. &Noble, M. (1992) Cooperation between PDGF and FGF converts slowly dividing O-2A adult progenitor cells to rapidly dividing cells with characteristics of O-2A perinatal progenitor cells.Journal of Cell Biology 118, 889–900.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Chapman and Hall 1995

Authors and Affiliations

  • N. D. Jeffery
    • 1
  • W. F. Blakemore
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Clinical Veterinary MedicineCambridgeUK

Personalised recommendations