Spatial variability in emissions reduction strategies for sulphur and nitrogen in the UK
- 33 Downloads
The roles of sulphur (S) and nitrogen (N) in causing critical loads exceedance across the UK show considerable spatial variability at the present time. Over much of lowland Britain it appears that the environment can only be protected by reducing N deposition, whilst in upland areas (e.g. most of Scotland and Wales) reductions in S deposition are the primary requirement. Using the Hull Acid Rain Model (HARM) the effects of current and possible future emissions control legislation on critical loads exceedance can be explored. Based on HARM output, the implementation of the UNECE Sulphur Protocol (1994) will bring about a substantial reduction in the amount of S being deposited in the UK, especially in central and southern parts of the country. Some areas will remain where additional reductions in S are required. Over most of the country, however, the need to reduce N deposition will become paramount. The changing contributions and significance of non-UK sources can be estimated.
Key wordssulphur nitrogen critical loads function emissions reductions
Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.
- Bull, K.B., Brown, M.J., Dyke, H., Eversham, B.C., Fuller, R.M., Horaung, M., Howard, D.C., Rodwell, J. & Roy, D.B.: 1995, Critical loads for nitrogen deposition for Great Britain,Water, Air and Soil Pollution, in press.Google Scholar
- CLAG: 1994, Critical loads of acidity in the United Kingdom. Report by the Department of the Environment's Critical Loads Advisory Group (Edited by Pitcaim, C.E.R.)Google Scholar
- Posch, M., Hettelingh, J-P., Svedrup, H.U., Bull, K.R. and de Vries, W.: 1993, Guidelines for the computation and mapping of critical loads exceedances of S and N in Europe. In: Calculation and mapping of critical loads in Europe (edited by Downing, R.J., Hettelingh, J-P. and de Smet, P.A.M.), RIVM report 259101003. RIVM: Bilthoven. 1Google Scholar
- Metcalfe, S.E., Whyatt, J.D. and Derwent, R.G.: in press,Q.J.R. Meteorol. Soc,121 Google Scholar
- Metcalfe, S.E., Atkins, D.H. and Derwent, R.G.: 1989,Atmos. Environ.,23, 2033–2052.Google Scholar
- UKRGIAN: 1994, Impacts of Nitrogen deposition in Terrestrial Ecosystems. Report of the United Kingdom Review Group on Impacts of Atmospheric N (Edited by Pitcaim, C.E.R.).Google Scholar
- UNECE: 1994, Protocol to the 1979 Convention on Long-Range Transboundary Air Pollution. United Nations: Geneva.Google Scholar