Deriving critical loads for Asia
Critical loads have been computed and mapped in Southeast Asia, comprising China, Korea, Japan, The Philippines, Indo-China, Indonesia and the Indian subcontinent. The methodology involved the Steady-State Mass Balance (SSMB) method, originally developed for Europe. In contrast to Europe, where critical loads were computed for forest soils and surface waters, in Asia critical loads for 31 different vegetation types have been computed. Critical chemical limits as well as soil stability criteria were derived for each of these vegetation types, which include both natural and managed ecosystems. Results show that low critical loads in Asia occur in Bangla-Desh, Indo-China, Indonesia and the southern part of China. Uncertainties of the results are mainly due to uncertainties in base cation deposition. The critical loads are part of the impact module of the Asian version of the Regional Air pollution INformation and Simulation model (RAINS-Asia), a model used to assess abatement strategies for sulfur emissions which are rapidly increasing in this part of the world. The difference in the level of detail between European and Asian critical load maps enables different applications. In Europe, critical loads for sulphur were used in comparison to actual sulphur deposition with the aim of decreasing the excess of sulphur deposition over critical loads through optimal emission abatement. In Asia in general and China in particular the geographical distribution of critical loads of sensitive ecosystems, with some emphasis on crops, is likely to be used as a basis for future emission (re-)allocation.
Key wordsacid deposition air pollution impacts critical loads integrated modeling ecosystem sensitivity
Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.
- Cinderby, S., Kuylenstierna, J.C.I. and Chadwick, M.J.: 1995, “Background Data and Mapping the Sensitivity in Asia”, In: Hettelinghet al., op. cit. pp. 27–42.Google Scholar
- Downing, R.J., Hettelingh, J.-P. and de Smet, P.A.M.: 1993, “Calculation and Mapping of Critical Loads in Europe”, CCE Status Report 1993, RIVM, Bilthoven, The Netherlands, 163 pp.Google Scholar
- Foell, W.K., Green, C., Amann, M., Bhattacharya, S., Carmichael, G., Chadwick, M., Cinderby, S., Haugland, T., Hettelingh, J.-P., Hordijk, L., Kuylenstierna, J., Shah, J., Shresta, R., Streets, D. and Zhao, D.: 1995, “Energy Use, Emissions, and Air Pollution Reduction Strategies in Asia”,this volume.Google Scholar
- Hettelingh, J.-P., Chadwick, M., Sverdrup, H., and Zhao, D.: 1995a, “Assessment of Environmental Effects of Acidic Deposition”, RIVM, Bilthoven, Netherlands, 145 pp.Google Scholar
- Hettelingh, J.-P., Posch, M., de Smet, P.A.M., Downing, R.J.: 1995b, “The Use of Critical Loads in Emission Reduction Agreements in Europe”,this volume.Google Scholar
- Kuylenstierna, J.C.I. and Chadwick, M.J.: 1989, “The Relative Sensitivity of Ecosystems in Europe to the Indirect Effects of Acidic Depositions”, In: Kämäri et al. (Eds), Regional Acidification Models, Springer, Heidelberg, 306 pp.Google Scholar
- Rodhe, H. and Herrera, R. (Eds): 1988, “Acidification in Tropical Countries”, SCOPE 36, John Wiley, Chichester, 405 pp.Google Scholar
- Sverdrup, H. and de Vries, W.: 1994, “Calculating Critivcal Loads for acidity with the Simple Mass Balance Method”,Water, Air, and Soil Pollution,72, 143–162.Google Scholar
- Sverdrup, H. and Warfvinge, P.: 1993, “Effect of Soil Acidification on Growth of Trees and Plants as Expressed by the (Ca+Mg+K)IAl Ratio”, Report 2:1993, Department of Chem. Eng. II, Lund University, Lund, Sweden.Google Scholar
- Xue, H.B. and Schnoor, J.L.: 1994, “Acid Deposition and Lake Chemistry in Southwest China”,Water, Air, and Soil Pollution,75, 61–78.Google Scholar
- Zhao, D. and Xiong, J.: 1988, “Acidification in Southwestern China”, In: H. Rodhe and R. Herrera (Eds),op. cit., pp. 317–347.Google Scholar
- Zongwei, F. and Kyunfeng, S.: 1991, “Relative Sensitivities of Woody Plants to Acid Deposition in South Areas of China”,Journal of Environmental Sciences (China),3(2), 61–68.Google Scholar