Orographic enhancement of wet deposition in the United Kingdom: case studies and modelling
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Two field experiments to observe the detailed response of wet deposition to orography in a polluted environment are reported. Rain events were classed as frontal, convective or mixed on the basis of meteorological data. Analysis of the deposition enhancement and cap cloud composition confirmed that for the frontal events the seeder-feeder effect (scavenging of cap cloud by rain drops) dominates. The greater concentration of ions in the water scavenged from the cap cloud than in the rain means that deposition is enhanced for all ions. For marine ions the scavenged water was found to be between five and six times as concentrated as the rain and for anthropogenically produced ions it was about twice as concentrated.
A computational model of rainfall incorporating the seeder-feeder effect has been broadly successful in predicting enhancement although some details of the observed pattern remain to be explained.
Convective events were only important in the deposition of marine ions although this may not be the case in the summer months. Convective events were found not to be subject to the seeder-feeder effect.
KeywordsWet Deposition Orographic Rainfall Pollution Seeder-feeder Effect
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