Advertisement

Cognitive Therapy and Research

, Volume 6, Issue 1, pp 91–103 | Cite as

Perceived psychophysiological control: The effects of power versus powerlessness

  • Carol R. Glass
  • Leon H. Levy
Article

Abstract

The current popularity of biofeedback training in self-control is often linked to its psychological benefits. However, the perception of control, whether veridical or not, may be playing a key role in the therapeutic benefits attributed to biofeedback. A total of 120 randomly assigned undergraduate women received two trials of false heart-rate feedback on a task presented either as biofeedback self-control or as externally controlled, due to physiological response to color of room illumination. Perceived efficacy or inefficacy and direction of suggested change were also manipulated. As predicted, perceived effective self-control resulted in more positive mood, internal attributions, and higher performance expectations; perceived ineffective self-control led to opposite results. Significant interactions suggested an important similarity between self-control efficacy and external-control inefficacy, and between self-control inefficacy and external-control efficacy. Results were related to the concept of personal power and powerlessness and to Bandura's theory of self-efficacy.

Keywords

Cognitive Psychology Physiological Response Therapeutic Benefit Opposite Result Positive Mood 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Abramson, L. Y., Seligman, M. E. P., & Teasdale, J. D. Learned helplessness in humans: Critique and reformulation.Journal of Abnormal Psychology 1978,87 49–74.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. Bandura, A. Self-efficacy: Toward a unifying theory of behavior change.Psychological Review 1977,84 191–215.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. Brown, B. Recognition of aspects of consciousness through association with EEG alpha activity represented by a light signal.Psychophysiology 1970,6 442–452.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. Cacioppo, J. T., Sandman, C. A., & Walker, B. B. The effects of operant heart rate conditioning on cognitive elaboration and attitude change.Psychophysiology 1978,15 330–338.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. Coursey, R. D. Electromyograph feedback as a relaxation technique.Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology 1975,43 825–834.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. deCharms, R.Pesonal causation. New York: Academic Press, 1968.Google Scholar
  7. Feather, N. T., & Simon, J. G. Causal attributions for success and failure in relation to expectations of success based upon selective or manipulative control.Journal of Personality 1971,39 527–541.Google Scholar
  8. Kamiya, J. Operant control of the EEG alpha rhythm and some of its reported effects on consciousness. In C. Tart (Ed.),Altered states of consciousness. New York: Wiley, 1969.Google Scholar
  9. Kanfer, F. H., & Goldfoot, D. C. Self-control and tolerance of noxious stimulation.Psychological Reports 1966,18 79–85.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. Kanfer, F. H., & Phillips, J. S.Learning foundations of behavior therapy. New York: Wiley, 1970.Google Scholar
  11. Kopel, S., & Arkowitz, H. The role of attribution and self-perception in behavior change: Implications for behavior therapy.Genetic Psychology Monographs 1975,92 175–212.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. Lorr, M., Daston, P., & Smith, I. R. An analysis of mood states.Educational and Psychological Measurement 1967,27 89–96.Google Scholar
  13. McClelland, D. C.Power: The inner experience. New York: Halstead Press, 1976.Google Scholar
  14. Miller, N. E., Barber, T. X., DiCara, L. V., Kamiya, J., Shapiro, D., & Stoyva, J. (Eds.),Biofeedback and self-control. Chicago: Aldine, 1974.Google Scholar
  15. Nowlis, D. P., & Kamiya, J. The control of electroencephalographic alpha rhythms through auditory feedback and the associated mental activity.Psychophysiology 1970,6 476–484.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. Perlmuter, L. C., & Monty, R. A. (Eds.),Choice and perceived control. Hillsdale, New Jersey: Erlbaum, 1979.Google Scholar
  17. Plotkin, W. B. On the social psychology of experiential states associated with EEG alpha biofeedback training. In J. Beatty & H. Legewie (Eds.),Biofeedback and behavior. New York: Plenum Press, 1977.Google Scholar
  18. Plotkin, W. B. The alpha experience revisited: Biofeedback in the transformation of psychological state.Psychological Bulletin 1979,86 1132–1148.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. Plotkin, W. B. The role of attributions of responsibility in the facilitation of unusual experiential states during EEG alpha training: An analysis of the biofeedback placebo effect.Journal of Abnormal Psychology 1980,89 67–78.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. Plotkin, W. B., Mazer, C., & Loewy, D. Alpha enhancement and the likelihood of an alpha experience.Psychophysiology 1976,13 466–471.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. Rotter, J. B. Generalized expectations for internal versus external control of reinforcement.Psychological Monographs, 1966,80(1, Whole No. 609).Google Scholar
  22. Schwartz, G. E. Biofeedback and physiological patterning in human emotion and consciousness. In J. Beatty & H. Legewie (Eds.),Biofeedback and behavior. New York: Plenum Press, 1977.Google Scholar
  23. Shapiro, D. Biofeedback and the regulation of complex psychological processes. In J. Beatty & H. Legewie (Eds.),Biofeedback and behavior. New York: Plenum Press, 1977.Google Scholar
  24. Stern, G. S., & Berrenberg, J. L. Biofeedback training in frontalis muscle relaxation and enhancement of belief in personal control.Biofeedback and Self-Regulation 1977,2 173–182.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. Weiner, B., Frieze, I., Kukla, A., Reed, L., Rest, S., & Rosenbaum, R. M.Perceiving the causes of success and failure. New York: General Learning Press, 1971.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Plenum Publishing Corporation 1982

Authors and Affiliations

  • Carol R. Glass
    • 1
  • Leon H. Levy
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of PsychologyCatholic University of AmericaWashington, D.C.USA
  2. 2.University of MarylandBaltimore CountyUSA

Personalised recommendations